Project Time Line — This will be an ongoing Research Page
FOIA Library FBI Vault Unexplained Phenomenon
The Black Vault
War of the Worlds 1938
Attack on Pearl Harbor Dec 7 1941
Operation Paperclip 1945 to 1959
Project Sign 1947 to 1949
Project Grudge 1949 to 1951
Project Magnet 1950 to 1954
Project BLUE BOOK 1951 to 1969
NCS/MJ-12 Project July 1954
Project Gleem / Aquarius 1953 to 1966
Project Snowbird / Redlight
Project Moon Dust / Op Blue Fly 1957
The Red Book
Condon Report 1968
Orion Project 2002
Project Sign had been active from 1947 to 1949. Some of Sign’s personnel, including director Robert Sneider, favored the extraterrestrial hypothesis as the best explanation for UFO reports. They prepared the Estimate of the Situation arguing their case. This hypothesis was ultimately rejected by high-ranking officers, and Project Sign was dissolved and replaced by Project Grudge.
The Grudge era
It was announced that Grudge would take over where Sign had left off, still investigating UFO reports. But as Air Force Captain Edward J. Ruppelt wrote, “In doing this, standard intelligence procedures would be used. This normally means an unbiased evaluation of intelligence data. But it doesn’t take a great deal of study of the old UFO files to see that standard intelligence procedures were not being followed by Project Grudge. Everything was being evaluated on the premise that UFOs couldn’t exist. No matter what you see or hear, don’t believe it.”
Ruppelt noted that some of “ATIC’s Air Technical Intelligence Center’s top intelligence specialists who had been so eager to work on Project Sign were no longer working on Project Grudge. Some of them had drastically and hurriedly changed their minds about UFOs when they learned the Pentagon was no longer sympathetic to the UFO cause.”
As Dr. Michael D. Swords writes, “Inside the military, Maj. Aaron J. Boggs in the Pentagon and Col. Harold Watson at AMC Air Material Command were openly giving the impression that the whole flying saucer business was ridiculous. Project Grudge became an exercise of derision and sloppy filing. Boggs was so enthusiastically antisaucer that General Cabell ordered General Moore to create a more proper atmosphere of skeptical respect for the reports and their observers.”
Critics charged that, from its formation, Project Grudge was operating under a debunking directive: all UFO reports were judged to have prosaic explanations, though little research was conducted, and some of Grudge’s “explanations” were strained or even logically untenable. In his 1956 book, Edward J. Ruppelt would describe Grudge as the “Dark Ages” of USAF UFO investigation. Grudge’s personnel were in fact conducting little or no investigation, while simultaneously relating that all UFO reports were being thoroughly reviewed. Ruppelt additionally reported that the word “Grudge” was chosen deliberately by the anti-saucer elements in the Air Force.
Public relations campaign
Like Project Sign, Grudge thought that the vast bulk of UFO reports could be explained as misidentified clouds, stars, sun dogs, conventional aircraft or the like. However, unlike Sign which thought some UFOs might have an extraordinary answer, Grudge’s personnel thought the remaining minority of reports could be explained away as normal phenomena. Grudge began a public relations campaign to explain their conclusions to the general public.
The first salvo in the PR campaign came via Sidney Shallet of the Saturday Evening Post, one of the more popular magazines of the era. Shallet’s article appeared in two consecutive issues of the Post (April 30 and May 7, 1949) and generally echoed the Grudge line: Most UFO reports could be easily explained as mundane phenomena misidentified by an eyewitness, the subject was blown out of proportion by the mass media. Shallet suggested that hoaxes and crackpots played a prominent role in popularizing UFOs, and the opinions of many high-ranking military personnel were featured.
The article also included a few misrepresentations of the facts. Shallet asserted that the Air Force thought the subject was nonsense, and was more or less forced to investigate flying saucers due to public interest—this was manifestly false, as the Air Force took the UFO subject seriously nearly from the beginning. Shallet, of course, did not have access to some secret information, such as the 1947 memorandum by Gen. Nathan Twining that had declared flying saucers a “real and not visionary” phenomenon and had kickstarted Project Sign, and did not mention Sign’s secret Estimate of the Situation that had argued in favor of an extraterrestrial origin for UFOs.
Shallett’s article was perhaps the first detailed public discussion of UFOs, let alone with the endorsement of such prominent military men. Grudge had hoped the article would reduce public interest in flying saucers, but the effect was just the opposite: Shallet had mentioned in passing that a small minority of UFO reports seemed to defy analysis, and these statements were seized upon by the press and the curious. Ruppelt wrote that rather than squelching interest, Shallet had “planted the seed of doubt” in the general public.
The Grudge report
Project Grudge issued its only formal report in August 1949. Though over 600 pages long, the report’s conclusions stated:
A. There is no evidence that objects reported upon are the result of an advanced scientific foreign development; and, therefore they constitute no direct threat to the national security. In view of this, it is recommended that the investigation and study of reports of unidentified flying objects be reduced in scope. Headquarters AMC Air Material Command will continue to investigate reports in which realistic technical applications are clearly indicated.
NOTE: It is apparent that further study along present lines would only confirm the findings presented herein. It is further recommended that pertinent collection directives be revised to reflect the contemplated change in policy.
B. All evidence and analyses indicate that reports of unidentified flying objects are the result of:
1. Misinterpretation of various conventional objects.
2. A mild form of mass-hysteria and war nerves.
3. Individuals who fabricate such reports to perpetrate a hoax or to seek publicity.
4. Psychopathological persons.
Not long after this report was released, it was reported that Grudge would soon be dissolved. Despite this announcement, Grudge was not quite finished. A few personnel were still assigned to the project, and they aided the authors of a few more debunking mass media articles.
In April 1951, Bob Ginna of Life magazine visited Wright Patterson Air Force Base. Investigating Grudge, he uncovered what Clark describes as “the project’s manifest shortcomings”. (Clark, 239) In response (at least “for appearances sake” according to Clark (ibid.) some of the more obviously anti-UFO personnel at Wright Patterson were reassigned. By mid-1951, Grudge consisted only of Lt. Gerry Cummings. According to Ruppelt, Cummings took his job seriously, but found little help or success in his efforts to reverse several years of apathy and dubious research.
On September 10, 1951, there was a radar/visual UFO encounter near Fort Monmouth in New Jersey. Pilots and radar operators reported encounters with a number of fast-moving, highly maneuverable disc-shaped aircraft. High-ranking personnel ordered an investigation, and Cummings and Lt. Colonel N.R. Rosegarten spent most of 13 September interviewing witnesses and gathering documentation at Ft. Monmouth.
The duo were then ordered to relate the results of their investigation directly to Major General Charles P. Cabell, then the head of Air Force intelligence at The Pentagon. Cummings and Rosegarten arrived at a meeting already in progress, and found the atmosphere thick with tension. Cabell in particular was distressed by what he saw as the sloppy debunking and lackadaisical attitude Project Grudge brought to bear on a subject he thought deserved serious scrutiny. Cummings and Rosegarten related their conclusions of the Fort Monmouth incident: they agreed with Monmouth personnel who judged the fast moving objects sighted there as being “intelligently controlled.”
When given permission to speak freely to Cabell and the others, Cummings “cut loose. He told how every UFO report [submitted to Grudge] was taken as a huge joke” and Grudge had become all but moribund.
When General Cabell learned that Grudge had essentially ignored UFO reports, he became furious. The Fort Monmouth case had highlighted what critics saw as Air Material Command’s sloppy debunking, and at a meeting, a frustrated Cabell was reported to have said, “I want an open mind; in fact, I order an open mind! Anyone who doesn’t keep an open mind can get out now! … Why do I have to stir up the action? Anyone can see that we do not have a satisfactory answer to the saucer question.” At another meeting—this one of high-ranking military Colonels—Cabell said, “I’ve been lied to, and lied to, and lied to. I want it to stop. I want the answer to the saucers and I want a good answer.” Cabell also characterized the 1949 Grudge report as “tripe”.
Lt. Col. N.R. Rosegarten asked Ruppelt to take over as the new project’s leader in late 1951, partly because Ruppelt “had a reputation as a good organizer.” (Jacobs, 65) While Cabell wanted Grudge reactivated, he did not want the general public to know that he and some others in the military took UFOs seriously, and ordered the project to keep a low profile. This, he hoped, would protect the military’s reputation on both fronts: if the saucer phenomenon was groundless, they could not be accused of sensationalism, but if the phenomenon proved to have some basis in fact, the military could produce serious studies of the subject. Cabell especially did not want the military to be perceived as belittling civilians who had reported UFOs.
Grudge became Project Blue Book. Its first era—directed by Ruppelt—is generally seen as its most open-minded and productive era.
Project Blue Book
Project BLUE BOOK has been declassified and the records are available for examination
On December 17, 1969, the Secretary of the Air Force announced the termination of Project BLUE BOOK, the Air Force program for the investigation of UFOS.
From 1947 to 1969, a total of 12, 618 sightings were reported to Project BLUE BOOK. Of these 701 remain “Unidentified.” The project was headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, whose personnel no longer receive, document or investigate UFO reports.
The decision to discontinue UFO investigations was based on an evaluation of a report prepared by the University of Colorado entitled, “Scientific Study of Unidentified Flying Objects;” a review of the University of Colorado’s report by the National Academy of Sciences; past UFO studies and Air Force experience investigating UFO reports during the 40s, ’50s, and ’60s.
As a result of these investigations and studies and experience gained from investigating UFO reports since 1948, the conclusions of Project BLUE BOOK are: no UFO reported, investigated, and evaluated by the Air Force has ever given any indication of threat to our national security;there has been no evidence submitted to or discovered by the Air Force that sightings categorized as “unidentified” represent technological developments or principles beyond the range of present-day scientific knowledge; andthere has been no evidence indicating that sightings categorized as “unidentified” are extraterrestrial vehicles.
With the termination of Project BLUE BOOK, the Air Force regulations establishing and controlling the program for investigating and analyzing UFOs were rescinded. Documentation regarding the former BLUE BOOK investigation has been permanently transferred to the Military Reference Branch, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC 20408, and is available for public review and analysis.
Since Project BLUE BOOK was closed, nothing has happened to indicate that the Air Force ought to resume investigating UFOS. Because of the considerable cost to the Air Force in the past, and the tight funding of Air Force needs today, there is no likelihood the Air Force will become involved with UFO investigation again.
There are a number of universities and professional scientific organizations, such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science, which have considered UFO phenomena during periodic meetings and seminars. In addition, a list of private organizations interested in aerial phenomena my be found in Gayle’s Encyclopedia of Associations . Such timely review of the situation by private groups ensures that sound evidence will not be overlooked by the scientific community.
A person calling the base to report a UFO is advised to contact a private or professional organization (as mentioned above) or to contact a local law enforcement agency if the caller feels his or public safety is endangered.
Periodically, it is erroneously stated that the remains of extraterrestrial visitors are or have been stored at Wright-Patterson AFB. There are not now nor ever have been, any extraterrestrial visitors or equipment on Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
“MJ12” and “Briefing Document: Operation Majestic 12
searches among the records in our custody of the U.S. Air Force and the Joint Chiefs of Staff to identify these documents. The Truman and Eisenhower Libraries have also searched their holdings for any references to, or copies of, the documents. In addition, the records of the National Security Council (NSC) for the Truman and Eisenhower Administrations are in the custody of the National Archives. Searches were made of the indexes to the NSC’s Policy Paper and Meeting Minute files under the subjects MJ-12, majestic, unidentified flying objects, UFO, flying saucers,extraterrestrial biological entities and Aquarius. These searches were all negative with the exception of a “Memorandum for General Twining, from Robert Cutler, Special Assistant to the President, Subject: “NCS/MJ-12 Special Studies Project” dated July 14, 1954. The memorandum, one page, refers to a briefing to take place on July 16. The memorandum does not identify MJ-12 or the purpose of the briefing.
The “Roswell Incident”
The National Archives has been unable to locate any documentation among the Project BLUE BOOK records which discuss the 1947 incident in Roswell, New Mexico.
On September 8, 1994, the Secretary of the Air Force, Sheila E. Widnall, announced that the United States Air Force had completed its study to locate records that relate to the alleged 1947 UFO incident near Roswell, New Mexico. Pro-UFO researchers claim that an extraterrestrial spacecraft and its alien occupants were recovered near Roswell in July of 1947, and that this fact was kept from the public.
At the request of Congressman Steven H. Schiff (R-NM), the General Accounting Office (GAO) initiated an audit in February of 1994, to locate all records relating to the “Roswell Incident” and to determine if such records were properly handled. The GAO audit was completed and the results published by the Headquarters, U.S. Air Force in 1995. The publication is entitled “The Roswell Report: Fact vs. Fiction in the New Mexico Desert.” This publication may be obtained from most U.S. Government Depository Library. The call number is ISBN 0-16- 048023-X.
The General Accounting Office audit involved a number of government agencies but focused on the Air Force. To support this audit, the Air Force initiated a systematic search of current Air Force offices as well as numerous archives and records centers which might help explain the incident. Air Force officials also interviewed a number of persons who may have had knowledge of the events. Prior to the interviews, Secretary Widnall released those persons from any previous security obligations that may have restricted their statements.
The Air Force research did not locate or develop any information that the “Roswell Incident” was a UFO event nor was there any indication of a “cover-up” by the Government. Information obtained through exhaustive records searches and interviews indicated that the materials recovered near Roswell was consistent with a balloon devise of the type used in a then classified project. No records indicated or even hinted that the recovery of “alien” bodies or extraterrestrial materials.
All documentation related to this case are now declassified and the information in the public domain. Documentation has been turned over to the office of the Air Force Historian.
The extraterrestrial hypothesis (ETH) proposes that some unidentified flying objects (UFOs) are best explained as being physical spacecraft occupied by extraterrestrial life or non-human aliens from other planets visiting Earth.
Origins of the term extraterrestrial hypothesis are unknown, but use in printed material on UFOs seems to date to at least the latter half of the 1960s. French ufologist Jacques Vallée used it in his 1966 book Challenge to science: the UFO enigma. It was used in a publication by French engineer Aimé Michel in 1967, by James E. McDonald in a symposium in March 1968 and again by McDonald and James Harder while testifying before the Congressional Committee on Science and Astronautics, in July 1968.Skeptic Philip J. Klass used it in his 1968 book UFOs–Identified. In 1969 physicist Edward Condon defined the “extraterrestrial hypothesis” or “ETH” as the “idea that some UFOs may be spacecraft sent to Earth from another civilization or space other than Earth, or on a planet associated with a more distant star,” while presenting the findings of the much debated Condon Report. Some UFO historians credit Condon with popularizing the term and its abbreviation “ETH”.
Although ETH is a comparatively new concept, one which owes much to the flying saucer sightings of the 1940s–1960s, its origins can be traced back to a number of earlier events, such as the now-discredited Martian canals and ancient Martian civilization promoted by astronomer Percival Lowell, popular culture including the writings of H. G. Wells and fellow science fiction pioneers such as Edgar Rice Burroughs, who likewise wrote of Martian civilizations, and even to the works of figures such as the Swedish philosopher, mystic and scientist Emanuel Swedenborg, who promoted a variety of unconventional views that linked other worlds to the afterlife.
In the early part of the 20th century, Charles Fort collected accounts of anomalous physical phenomena from newspapers and scientific journals, including many reports of extraordinary aerial objects. These were published in 1919 in The Book of the Damned. In this and two subsequent books, New Lands (1923) and Lo! (1931), Fort theorized that visitors from other worlds were observing Earth. Fort’s reports of aerial phenomena were frequently cited in American newspapers when the UFO phenomenon first attracted widespread media attention in June and July 1947.
The modern ETH — specifically, the implicit linking of unidentified aircraft and lights in the sky to alien life — took root during the late 1940s and took its current form during the 1950s. It drew on pseudoscience, as well as popular culture. Unlike earlier speculation of extraterrestrial life, interest in the ETH was also bolstered by many unexplained sightings investigated by the U.S. government and governments of other countries, as well as private civilian groups, such as NICAP and APRO.
Historical reports of extraterrestrial visits
An early example of speculation over extraterrestrial visitors can be found in the French newspaper Le Pays, which on June 17, 1864, published a story about two American geologists who had allegedly discovered an alien-like creature, a mummified three-foot-tall hairless humanoid with a trunk-like appendage on its forehead, inside a hollow egg-shaped structure.
H. G. Wells, in his 1898 science fiction classic The War of the Worlds, popularized the idea of Martian visitation and invasion. Even before Wells, there was a sudden upsurge in reports in “Mystery airships” in the U.S. For example, the Washington Times in 1897 speculated that the airships were “a reconnoitering party from Mars” and the Saint Louis Post-Dispatch wrote, “these may be visitors from Mars, fearful, at the last, of invading the planet they have been seeking.” Later there was a more international airship wave from 1909-1912. An example of an extraterrestrial explanation at the time was a 1909 letter to a New Zealand newspaper suggesting “atomic powered spaceships from Mars.”
From the 1920s the idea of alien visitation in space ships was commonplace in popular comic strips and radio and movie serials such as Buck Rogers and Flash Gordon. In particular, Flash Gordon serials have Earth being attacked from space by alien meteors, ray beams, and biological weapons. In 1938 a radio broadcast version of The War of the Worlds by Orson Welles, using a contemporary setting for H. G. Wells’ Martian invasion, created some public panic in the United States.
The 1947 U.S. flying saucer wave
On June 24, 1947, at about 3:00 p.m. local time, pilot Kenneth Arnold reported seeing nine unidentified disk-shaped aircraft flying near Mount Rainier. When no aircraft emerged that seemed to account for what he had seen, Arnold quickly considered the possibility of the objects being extraterrestrial. On July 7, 1947, two stories came out where Arnold was raising the topic of possible extraterrestrial origins, both as his opinion and those who had written to him. In an Associated Press story, Arnold said he had received quantities of fan mail eager to help solve the mystery. Some of them “suggested the discs were visitations from another planet.”
When the 1947 flying saucer wave hit the U.S., there was much speculation in the newspapers about what they might be in news stories, columns, editorials, and letters to the editor. For example, on July 10, U.S. Senator Glen Taylor of Idaho commented, “I almost wish the flying saucers would turn out to be space ships from another planet,” because the possibility of hostility “would unify the people of the earth as nothing else could.” On July 8, Dewitt Miller was quoted by UP saying that the saucers had been seen since the early nineteenth century. If the present discs weren’t secret Army weapons, he suggested they could be vehicles from Mars or other planets or maybe even “things out of other dimensions of time and space.”Other articles brought up the work of Charles Fort, who earlier in the 20th Century had documented numerous reports of unidentified flying objects that had been written up in newspapers and scientific journals.
Even if people thought the saucers were real, most were generally unwilling to leap to the conclusion that they were extraterrestrial in origin. Various popular theories began to quickly proliferate in press articles, such as secret military projects, Russian spy devices, hoaxes, optical illusions, and mass hysteria. According to Murrow, the ETH as a serious explanation for “flying saucers” did not earn widespread attention until about 18 months after Arnold’s sighting.
These attitudes seem to be reflected in the results of the first US poll of public UFO perceptions released by Gallup on August 14, 1947. The term “flying saucer” was familiar to 90% of the respondents. As to what people thought explained them, the poll further showed that most people either held no opinion or refused to answer the question (33%), or generally believed that there was a mundane explanation. 29% thought they were optical illusions, mirages or imagination, 15% a US secret weapon, 10% a hoax, 3% a “weather forecasting device”, 1% of Soviet origin, and 9% had “other explanations”, including fulfillment of Biblical prophecy, secret commercial aircraft, or related to atomic testing.
USA military investigation and debunkery
On July 9, Army Air Forces Intelligence began a secret study of the best saucer reports, including Arnold’s. A follow-up study by the Air Materiel Command intelligence and engineering departments at Wright Field Ohio led to the formation the U.S. Air Force’s Project Sign at the end of 1947, the first official U.S. military UFO study.
In 1948, Project Sign wrote their Estimate of the Situation, which concluded that the remaining unidentified sightings were best explained by the ETH. The report ultimately was rejected by the USAF Chief of Staff, General Hoyt Vandenberg, citing a lack of physical evidence, and its existence was not publicly disclosed until 1956 by later Project Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt. Ruppelt also indicated that Vandenberg dismantled Project Sign after they wrote their ETH conclusion. With this official policy in place, all subsequent public Air Force reports concluded that there was either insufficient evidence to link UFOs and ETH, or that UFOs did not warrant investigation.
Immediately following the great UFO wave of 1952 and military debunking of the radar and visual sightings plus jet interceptions over Washington, D.C. in August, the CIA’s Office of Scientific Investigation took particular interest in UFOs. Though the ETH was mentioned, it was generally given little credence. However, others within the CIA, such as the Psychological Strategy Board, were more concerned about how an unfriendly power such as the Soviet Union might use UFOs for psychological warfare purposes, exploit the gullibility of the public for the sensational, and clog intelligence channels. Under a directive from the National Security Council to review the problem, in January 1953, the CIA organized the Robertson Panel, a group of scientists who quickly reviewed the Blue Book’s best evidence, including motion pictures and an engineering report that concluded that the performance characteristics were beyond that of earthly craft. After two days’ review, all cases were claimed to have conventional explanations. An official policy of public debunkery was recommended using the mass media and authority figures in order to influence public opinion and reduce the number of UFO reports.
Evolution of public opinion
The early 1950s also saw a number of movies depicting flying saucers and aliens, including The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951), The War of the Worlds, Earth vs. the Flying Saucers (1956), and Forbidden Planet (1956). Despite this, public belief in ETH seems to have remained low during the early 1950s, even among those reporting UFOs. A poll published in Popular Science magazine, in August 1951, showed that 52% of UFO witnesses questioned believed that they had seen a man-made aircraft, while only 4% believed that they had seen an alien craft. However, an additional 28% were uncertain, with more than half of these stating they believed they were either man-made aircraft or “visitors from afar”. Thus the total number of UFO witnesses who considered the ETH viable was approximately 20%. Within a few years, belief in ETH had increased due to the activities of people such as retired U.S. Marine Corps officer Maj. Donald E. Keyhoe, who campaigned to raise public awareness of the UFO phenomenon. By 1957, 25% of Americans responded that they either believed, or were willing to believe, in ETH, while 53% responded that they were not (though a majority of these respondents indicated they thought UFOs to be real but of earthly origin). 22% said that they were uncertain.
During this time, the ETH proponents fragmented into distinct camps, each believing slightly different variations of the hypothesis. The “contactees” of the early 1950s said that the “space brothers” they met were peaceful and benevolent, but by the mid-1960s, a number of alleged alien abductions; including that of Betty and Barney Hill, and of the apparent mutilation of cattle cast the ETH in more sinister terms.
Opinion polls indicate that public belief in the ETH has continued to rise since then. For example, a 1997 Gallup poll of the U.S. public indicated that 87% knew about UFOs, 48% believed them to be real (vs. 33% who thought them to be imaginary), and 45% believed UFOs had visited Earth. Similarly a Roper poll from 2002 found 56% thought UFOs to be real and 48% thought UFOs had visited Earth.
Polls also indicate that the public believe even more strongly that the government is suppressing evidence about UFOs. For example, in both the cited Gallup and Roper polls, the figure was about 80%.
Further information: Exotheology
Fewer sightings despite camera phone technology
Support for the extraterrestrial hypothesis in the last decade has seen a decline as the proliferation of smartphone camera technology across the population has not led to a significant increase in recorded UFO sightings. This goes counter to the predictions of supporters of the extraterrestrial hypothesis, even causing a crisis of confidence among some within the informal UFO research community.
Opinions among scientists
The scientific community has shown very little support for the ETH, and has largely accepted the explanation that reports of UFOs are the result of people misinterpreting common objects or phenomena, or are the work of hoaxers. Professor Stephen Hawking has expressed skepticism about the ETH. In a 1969 lecture, U.S. astrophysicist Carl Sagan said:
“The idea of benign or hostile space aliens from other planets visiting the eEarth [is clearly] an emotional idea. There are two sorts of self-deception here: either accepting the idea of extraterrestrial visitation by space aliens in the face of very meager evidence because we want it to be true; or rejecting such an idea out of hand, in the absence of sufficient evidence, because we don’t want it to be true. Each of these extremes is a serious impediment to the study of UFOs.”
Similarly, British astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock wrote
“for many years, discussions of the UFO issue have remained narrowly polarized between advocates and adversaries of a single theory, namely the extraterrestrial hypothesis … this fixation on the ETH has narrowed and impoverished the debate, precluding an examination of other possible theories for the phenomenon.”
An informal poll done by Sturrock in 1973 of American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics members found that about 10% of them believed that UFOs were vehicles from outer space. In another informal poll conducted in 1977 by astrophysicist Peter A. Sturrock, he surveyed members of the American Astronomical Society. Sturrock asked polled scientists to assign probabilities to eight possible explanations for UFOs. The results were:[not in citation given]
23% An unfamiliar natural phenomenon
22% A familiar phenomenon or device
21% An unfamiliar terrestrial device
9% An unknown natural phenomenon
7% Some specifiable other cause
3% An alien device
3% Some unspecified other cause
The primary scientific arguments against ETH were summarized by astronomer and UFO researcher J. Allen Hynek during a presentation at the 1983 MUFON Symposium, where he outlined seven key reasons why he could not accept the ETH.
Failure of sophisticated surveillance systems to detect incoming or outgoing UFOs
Gravitational and atmospheric considerations
Elusive, evasive and absurd behavior of UFOs and their occupants
Isolation of the UFO phenomenon in time and space: the Cheshire Cat effect
The space unworthiness of UFOs
The problem of astronomical distances
Hynek argued that:
Despite worldwide radar systems and Earth-orbiting satellites, UFOs are alleged to flit in and out of the atmosphere, leaving little to no evidence.
Space aliens are alleged to be overwhelmingly humanoid, and are allegedly able to exist on Earth without much difficulty often lacking “space suits”, even though extra-solar planets would likely have different atmospheres, biospheres, gravity and other factors, and extraterrestrial life would likely be very different from Earthly life.
The number of reported UFOs and of purported encounters with UFO-inhabitants outstrips the number of expeditions that an alien civilization (or civilizations) could statistically be expected to mount.
The behavior of extraterrestrials reported during alleged abductions is often inconsistent and irrational.
UFOs are isolated in time and space: like the Cheshire Cat, they seem to appear and disappear at will, leaving only vague, ambiguous and mocking evidence of their presence
Reported UFOs are often far too small to support a crew traveling through space, and their reported flight behavior is often not representative of a craft under intelligent control (erratic flight patterns, sudden course changes).
The distance between planets makes interstellar travel impractical, particularly because of the amount of energy that would be required for interstellar travel using conventional means, (According to a NASA estimate, it would take 7×1019 joules of energy to send the current space shuttle on a one-way, 50 year, journey to the nearest star, an enormous amount of energy) and because of the level of technology that would be required to circumvent conventional energy/fuel/speed limitations using exotic means such as Einstein-Rosen Bridges as ways to shorten distances from point A to point B.(see Faster-than-light travel).
According to Hynek, points 1 through 6 could be argued, but point 7 represented an insurmountable barrier to the validity of the ETH.
NASA frequently fields questions in regard to the ETH and UFOs. As of 2006, its official standpoint was that ETH has a lack of empirical evidence.
“no one has ever found a single artifact, or any other convincing evidence for such alien visits”. David Morrison.
“As far as I know, no claims of UFOs as being alien craft have any validity — the claims are without substance, and certainly not proved”. David Morrison
Despite public interest, NASA considers the study of ETH to be irrelevant to its work because of the number of false leads that a study would provide, and the limited amount of usable scientific data that it would yield.
Main article: UFO conspiracy theory
A frequent concept in ufology and popular culture is that the true extent of information about UFOs is being suppressed by some form of conspiracy of silence, or by an official cover-up that is acting to conceal information.
In 1968, American engineer James Harder argued that significant evidence existed to prove UFOs “beyond reasonable doubt,” but that the evidence had been suppressed and largely neglected by scientists and the general public, thus preventing sound conclusions from being reached on the ETH.
“Over the past 20 years a vast amount of evidence has been accumulating that bears on the existence of UFOs. Most of this is little known to the general public or to most scientists. But on the basis of the data and ordinary rules of evidence, as would be applied in civil or criminal courts, the physical reality of UFOs has been proved beyond a reasonable doubt.” J A Harder
A survey carried out by Industrial Research magazine in 1971 showed that more Americans believed the government was concealing information about UFOs (76%) than believed in the existence of UFOs (54%), or in ETH itself (32%).[not in citation given]
Documents and investigations regarding ETH
November 1948 USAF Top Secret document citing extraterrestrial opinion.
Other private or governmental studies, some secret, have concluded in favor of the ETH, or have had members who disagreed with official conclusions against the conclusion by committees and agencies to which they belonged. The following are examples of sources that have focused specifically on the topic:
In 1967, Greek physicist Paul Santorini, a Manhattan Project scientist, publicly stated that a 1947 Greek government investigation into the European Ghost rockets of 1946 under his lead quickly concluded that they were not missiles. Santorini claimed the investigation was then quashed by military officials from the U.S., who knew them to be extraterrestrial, because there was no defense against the advanced technology and they feared widespread panic should the results become public.
A 1948 Top Secret USAF Europe document (at right) states that Swedish air intelligence informed them that at least some of their investigators into the ghost rockets and flying saucers concluded they had extraterrestrial origins: “…Flying saucers have been reported by so many sources and from such a variety of places that we are convinced that they cannot be disregarded and must be explained on some basis which is perhaps slightly beyond the scope of our present intelligence thinking. When officers of this Directorate recently visited the Swedish Air Intelligence Service… their answer was that some reliable and fully technically qualified people have reached the conclusion that ‘these phenomena are obviously the result of a high technical skill which cannot be credited to any presently known culture on earth.’ They are therefore assuming that these objects originate from some previously unknown or unidentified technology, possibly outside the earth.”
In 1948, the USAF Project Sign produced a Top Secret Estimate of the Situation, concluding that the ETH was the most likely explanation for the most perplexing unexplained cases. The study was ordered destroyed by USAF chief of staff General Hoyt Vandenberg, citing lack of proof. Knowledge of the existence of the Estimate has come from insiders who said they read a surviving copy, including later USAF Project Blue Book head Edward J. Ruppelt and astronomer and USAF consultant J. Allen Hynek.
West Germany, in conjunction with other European countries, conducted a secret study from 1951 to 1954, also concluding that UFOs were extraterrestrial. This study was revealed by German rocketry pioneer Hermann Oberth, who headed the study and who also made many public statements supporting the ETH in succeeding years. At the study’s conclusion in 1954, Oberth declared, “These objects (UFOs) are conceived and directed by intelligent beings of a very high order. They do not originate in our solar system, perhaps not in our galaxy.” Soon afterwards, in an article in The American Weekly, October 24, 1954, Oberth wrote “It is my thesis that flying saucers are real and that they are space ships from another solar system. I think that they possibly are manned by intelligent observers who are members of a race that may have been investigating our earth for centuries…”
The CIA started their own internal scientific review the following day. Some CIA scientists were also seriously considering the ETH. An early memo from August was very skeptical, but also added, “…as long as a series of reports remains ‘unexplainable’ (interplanetary aspects and alien origin not being thoroughly excluded from consideration) caution requires that intelligence continue coverage of the subject.” A report from later that month was similarly skeptical but nevertheless concluded “…sightings of UFOs reported at Los Alamos and Oak Ridge, at a time when the background radiation count had risen inexplicably. Here we run out of even ‘blue yonder’ explanations that might be tenable, and we still are left with numbers of incredible reports from credible observers.” A December 1952 memo from the Assistant CIA Director of Scientific Intelligence (O/SI) was much more urgent: “…the reports of incidents convince us that there is something going on that must have immediate attention. Sightings of unexplained objects at great altitudes and traveling at high speeds in the vicinity of U.S. defense installation are of such nature that they are not attributable to natural phenomena or known types of aerial vehicles.” Some of the memos also made it clear that CIA interest in the subject was not to be made public, partly in fear of possible public panic.
The CIA organized the January 1953 Robertson Panel of scientists to debunk the data collected by the Air Force’s Project Blue Book. This included an engineering analysis of UFO maneuvers by Blue Book (including a motion picture film analysis by Naval scientists) that had concluded UFOs were under intelligent control and likely extraterrestrial.
Extraterrestrial “believers” within Project Blue Book included Major Dewey Fournet, in charge of the engineering analysis of UFO motion, who later became a board member on the civilian UFO organization NICAP. Blue Book director Edward J. Ruppelt privately commented on other firm “pro-UFO” members in the USAF investigations, including some Pentagon generals, such as Charles P. Cabell, USAF Chief of Air Intelligence who, angry at the inaction and debunkery of Project Grudge, dissolved it in 1951, established Project Blue Book in its place, and made Ruppelt director. In 1953, Cabell became deputy director of the CIA. Another defector from the official Air Force party line was consultant J. Allen Hynek, who started out as a staunch skeptic. After 20 years of investigation, he changed positions and generally supported the ETH. He became the most publicly known UFO advocate scientist in the 1970s and 1980s.
The first CIA Director, Vice Admiral Roscoe H. Hillenkoetter, stated in a signed statement to Congress, also reported in the New York Times, February 28, 1960, “It is time for the truth to be brought out… Behind the scenes high-ranking Air Force officers are soberly concerned about the UFOs. However, through official secrecy and ridicule, many citizens are led to believe the unknown flying objects are nonsense… I urge immediate Congressional action to reduce the dangers from secrecy about unidentified flying objects.” In 1962, in his letter of resignation from NICAP, he told director Donald Keyhoe, “I know the UFOs are not U.S. or Soviet devices. All we can do now is wait for some actions by the UFOs.”
Although the 1968 Condon Report came to a negative conclusion (written by Condon), it is known that many members of the study strongly disagreed with Condon’s methods and biases. Most quit the project in disgust or were fired for insubordination. A few became ETH supporters. Perhaps the best known example is David Saunders, who in his 1968 book UFOs? Yes lambasted Condon for extreme bias and ignoring or misrepresenting critical evidence. Saunders wrote, “It is clear… that the sightings have been going on for too long to explain in terms of straightforward terrestrial intelligence. It’s in this sense that ETI (Extra Terrestrial Intelligence) stands as the ‘least implausible’ explanation of ‘real UFOs’.”
In 1999, the private French COMETA report (written primarily by military defense analysts) stated the conclusion regarding UFO phenomena, that a “single hypothesis sufficiently takes into account the facts and, for the most part, only calls for present-day science. It is the hypothesis of extraterrestrial visitors.” The report noted issues with formulating the extraterrestrial hypothesis, likening its study to the study of meteorites, but concluded that although it was far from the best scientific hypothesis, “strong presumptions exist in its favour”. The report also concludes that the studies it presents “demonstrate the almost certain physical reality of completely unknown flying objects with remarkable flight performances and noiselessness, apparently operated by intelligent [beings] … Secret craft definitely of early origins (drones, stealth aircraft, etc.) can only explain a minority of cases. If we go back far enough in time, we clearly perceive the limits of this explanation.”
Jean-Jacques Velasco, the head of the official French UFO investigation SEPRA, wrote a book in 2005 saying that 14% of the 5800 cases studied by SEPRA were utterly inexplicable and extraterrestrial in origin. Yves Sillard, the head of the new official French UFO investigation GEIPAN and former head of the French space agency CNES, echoes Velasco’s comments and adds the U.S. is guilty of covering up this information. However this is not the official public posture of SEPRA, CNES, or the French government. (The CNES placed their 5,800 case files on the Internet starting March 2007.)
Official White House position
In November 2011, the White House released an official response to two petitions asking the U.S. government to acknowledge formally that aliens have visited Earth and to disclose any intentional withholding of government interactions with extraterrestrial beings. According to the response, “The U.S. government has no evidence that any life exists outside our planet, or that an extraterrestrial presence has contacted or engaged any member of the human race.” Also, according to the response, there is “no credible information to suggest that any evidence is being hidden from the public’s eye.” The response further noted that efforts, like SETI, the Kepler space telescope and the NASA Mars rover, continue looking for signs of life. The response noted “odds are pretty high” that there may be life on other planets but “the odds of us making contact with any of them—especially any intelligent ones—are extremely small, given the distances involved.”
The United States Air Force facility commonly known as Area 51 is a highly classified remote detachment of Edwards Air Force Base, within the Nevada Test and Training Range. According to the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the correct names for the facility are Homey Airport (ICAO: KXTA) and Groom Lake, though the name Area 51 was used in a CIA document from the Vietnam War. The facility has also been referred to as Dreamland and Paradise Ranch, among other nicknames. The special use airspace around the field is referred to as Restricted Area 4808 North (R-4808N).
The base’s current primary purpose is publicly unknown; however, based on historical evidence, it most likely supports the development and testing of experimental aircraft and weapons systems (black projects). The intense secrecy surrounding the base has made it the frequent subject of conspiracy theories and a central component to unidentified flying object (UFO) folklore. Although the base has never been declared a secret base, all research and occurrences in Area 51 are Top Secret/Sensitive Compartmented Information (TS/SCI). On 25 June 2013, following a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request filed in 2005, the CIA publicly acknowledged the existence of the base for the first time, declassifying documents detailing the history and purpose of Area 51.
Area 51 is located in the southern portion of Nevada in the western United States, 83 miles (134 km) north-northwest of Las Vegas. Situated at its center, on the southern shore of Groom Lake, is a large military airfield. The site was acquired by the United States Air Force in 1955, primarily for the flight testing of the Lockheed U-2 aircraft. The area around Area 51, including the small town of Rachel on the “Extraterrestrial Highway”, is a popular tourist destination.
The original rectangular base of 6 by 10 miles (9.7 by 16.1 km) is now part of the so-called “Groom box”, a rectangular area measuring 23 by 25 miles (37 by 40 km), of restricted airspace. The area is connected to the internal Nevada Test Site (NTS) road network, with paved roads leading south to Mercury and west to Yucca Flat. Leading northeast from the lake, the wide and well-maintained Groom Lake Road runs through a pass in the Jumbled Hills. The road formerly led to mines in the Groom basin, but has been improved since their closure. Its winding course runs past a security checkpoint, but the restricted area around the base extends further east. After leaving the restricted area, Groom Lake Road descends eastward to the floor of the Tikaboo Valley, passing the dirt-road entrances to several small ranches, before converging with State Route 375, the “Extraterrestrial Highway”, south of Rachel.
Area 51 shares a border with the Yucca Flat region of the Nevada Test Site, the location of 739 of the 928 nuclear tests conducted by the United States Department of Energy at NTS.The Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository is 44 miles (71 km) southwest of Groom Lake.
Nevada Test Range topographic chart centered on Groom Lake
Groom Lake is a salt flat in Nevada used for runways of the Nellis Bombing Range Test Site airport (KXTA) on the north of the Area 51 USAF military installation. The lake at 4,409 ft (1,344 m) elevation is approximately 3.7 miles (6.0 km) from north to south and 3 miles (4.8 km) from east to west at its widest point. Located within the namesake Groom Lake Valley portion of the Tonopah Basin, the lake is 25 mi (40 km) south of Rachel, Nevada.
The origin of the Area 51 name is unclear. The most accepted comes from a grid numbering system of the area by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC); while Area 51 is not part of this system, it is adjacent to Area 15. Another explanation is that 51 was used because it was unlikely that the AEC would use the number.
Lead and silver were discovered in the southern part of the Groom Range in 1864,[and the English Groome Lead Mines Limited company financed the Conception Mines in the 1870s, giving the district its name (nearby mines included Maria, Willow and White Lake). The interests in Groom were acquired by J. B. Osborne and partners and patented in 1876, and his son acquired the interests in the 1890s. Claims were incorporated as two 1916 companies with mining continuing until 1918 and resuming after World War II until the early 1950s.
World War II
The airfield on the Groom Lake site began service in 1942 as Indian Springs Air Force Auxiliary Field, and consisted of two unpaved 5000-foot runways aligned NE/SW, NW/SE 37°16′35″N 115°45′20″W.
“The Ranch” with U-2 flight line
The Groom Lake test facility was established in April 1955 by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for Project Aquatone, the development of the Lockheed U-2 strategic reconnaissance aircraft.
As part of the project, the director, Richard M. Bissell, Jr., understood that, given the extreme secrecy enveloping the project, the flight test and pilot training programs could not be conducted at Edwards Air Force Base or Lockheed’s Palmdale facility. A search for a suitable testing site for the U-2 was conducted under the same extreme security as the rest of the project.
He notified Lockheed, who sent an inspection team out to Groom Lake. According to Lockheed’s U-2 designer Kelly Johnson:
We flew over it and within thirty seconds, you knew that was the place … it was right by a dry lake. Man alive, we looked at that lake, and we all looked at each other. It was another Edwards, so we wheeled around, landed on that lake, taxied up to one end of it. It was a perfect natural landing field … as smooth as a billiard table without anything being done to it”. Johnson used a compass to lay out the direction of the first runway. The place was called “Groom Lake”.
The lakebed made an ideal strip from which they could test aircraft, and the Emigrant Valley’s mountain ranges and the NTS perimeter, about 100 mi (160 km) north of Las Vegas, protected the test site from visitors. The CIA asked the AEC to acquire the land, designated “Area 51” on the map, and add it to the Nevada Test Site.
Johnson named the area “Paradise Ranch” to encourage workers to move to a place that the CIA’s official history of the U-2 project would later describe as “the new facility in the middle of nowhere”; the name became shortened to “the Ranch”. On 4 May 1955, a survey team arrived at Groom Lake and laid out a 5,000-foot (1,500 m), north-south runway on the southwest corner of the lakebed and designated a site for a base support facility. “The Ranch”, also known as Site II, initially consisted of little more than a few shelters, workshops and trailer homes in which to house its small team. In a little over three months, the base consisted of a single, paved runway, three hangars, a control tower, and rudimentary accommodations for test personnel. The base’s few amenities included a movie theatre and volleyball court. Additionally, there was a mess hall, several water wells, and fuel storage tanks. By July 1955, CIA, Air Force, and Lockheed personnel began arriving. The Ranch received its first U-2 delivery on 24 July 1955 from Burbank on a C-124 Globemaster II cargo plane, accompanied by Lockheed technicians on a Douglas DC-3. Regular Military Air Transport Service flights were set up between Area 51 and Lockheed’s Burbank, California offices. To preserve secrecy, personnel flew to Nevada on Monday mornings and returned to California on Friday evenings.
In Nov 1959 an “A-12 mock-up undergoes RCS
testing at Groom Lake”.
The 2nd YF-12A interceptor prototype at Groom Lake, Nevada (USAF Photograph)
An A-12 (60-6924) takes off from Groom Lake during one of the first test flights, piloted by Louis Schalk, 26 April 1962
Project OXCART established in August 1959 for “antiradar studies, aerodynamic structural tests, and engineering designs [and] all later work on the” Lockheed A-12 included testing at Groom Lake, which before improvements for OXCART had inadequate facilities: buildings for only 150 people, a 5,000 ft (1,500 m) asphalt runway, and limited fuel, hangar, and shop space. Selected for its seclusion and climate, Groom Lake had received a new official name “Area 51” when A-12 test facility construction began in September 1960, including a new 8,500 ft (2,600 m) runway to replace the existing runway (completed by 15 November 1960 with “expansion joints parallel to the direction of aircraft roll” to limit vibration.)
Four years of “Project 51” construction began on 1 October 1960 by Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company (REECo) with double-shift construction schedules. The contractor upgraded base facilities and built a new 10,000 ft (3,000 m) runway (14/32) diagonally across the southwest corner of the lakebed. An Archimedes curve approximately two miles across was marked on the dry lake so that an A-12 pilot approaching the end of the overrun could abort to the playa instead of plunging the aircraft into the sagebrush. Area 51 pilots called it “The Hook”. For crosswind landings two unpaved airstrips (runways 9/27 and 03/21) were marked on the dry lakebed.
By August 1961, construction of the essential facilities was completed (3 surplus Navy hangars were erected on the base’s north side—hangars 4, 5, and 6.) A fourth, Hangar 7, was new construction. The original U-2 hangars were converted to maintenance and machine shops. Facilities in the main cantonment area included workshops and buildings for storage and administration, a commissary, control tower, fire station, and housing. The Navy also contributed more than 130 surplus Babbitt duplex housing units for long-term occupancy facilities. Older buildings were repaired, and additional facilities were constructed as necessary. A reservoir pond, surrounded by trees, served as a recreational area one mile north of the base. Other recreational facilities included a gymnasium, movie theatre, and a baseball diamond. A permanent aircraft fuel tank farm was constructed by early 1962 for the special JP-7 fuel required by the A-12. Seven tanks were constructed, with a total capacity of 1,320,000 gallons.
For the arrival of OXCART; security was enhanced and the small civilian mine in the Groom basin was closed. In January 1962, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) expanded the restricted airspace in the vicinity of Groom Lake. The lakebed became the center of a 600-square-mile addition to restricted area R-4808N.
The CIA facility received eight USAF F-101 Voodoos for training, two T-33 Shooting Star trainers for proficiency flying, a C-130 Hercules for cargo transport, a U-3A for administrative purposes, a helicopter for search and rescue, and a Cessna 180 for liaison use; and Lockheed provided an F-104 Starfighter for use as a chase plane.
The first A-12 test aircraft was covertly trucked from Burbank on 26 February 1962, arrived at Groom Lake on 28 February, was assembled, and made its first flight 26 April 1962 when the base had over 1,000 personnel. Initially, all not connected with a test were herded into the mess hall before each takeoff. This was soon dropped as it disrupted activities and was impractical with the large number of flights.The closed airspace above Groom Lake was within the Nellis Air Force Range airspace, and pilots saw the A-12 20–30 times (at least one signed a secrecy agreement.).
Groom was also the site of the first Lockheed D-21 drone test flight on 22 December 1964 (not launched until 5 March 1966). By the end of 1963, nine A-12s were at Area 51, assigned to the CIA operated “1129th Special Activities Squadron”.
Although it was decided on 10 January 1967 to phase out the CIA A-12 program, A-12s at Groom Lake occasionally deployed to Kadena AB, Okinawa, for Project Black Shield in 1967 (the 9 A-12s were stored at Palmdale in June 1968 and the 1129th SAS was inactivated.)
The D-21 mounted on the back of the M-21. Note the intake cover on the drone, which was used on early flights.
Following the loss of Gary Powers‘ U-2 over the Soviet Union, there were several discussions about using the A-12 OXCART as an unpiloted drone aircraft. Although Kelly Johnson had come to support the idea of drone reconnaissance, he opposed the development of an A-12 drone, contending that the aircraft was too large and complex for such a conversion. However, the Air Force agreed to fund the study of a high-speed, high-altitude drone aircraft in October 1962. The Air Force interest seems to have moved the CIA to take action, the project designated “Q-12”. By October 1963, the drone’s design had been finalized. At the same time, the Q-12 underwent a name change. To separate it from the other A-12-based projects, it was renamed the “D-21”. (The “12” was reversed to “21”). “Tagboard” was the project’s code name.
The first D-21 was completed in the spring of 1964 by Lockheed. After four more months of checkouts and static tests, the aircraft was shipped to Groom Lake and reassembled. It was to be carried by a two-seat derivative of the A-12, designated the “M-21″. When the D-21/M-21 reached the launch point, the first step would be to blow off the D-21’s inlet and exhaust covers. With the D-21/M-21 at the correct speed and altitude, the LCO would start the ramjet and the other systems of the D-21. With the D-21’s systems activated and running, and the launch aircraft at the correct point, the M-21 would begin a slight pushover, the LCO would push a final button, and the D-21 would come off the pylon”.
Difficulties were addressed throughout 1964 and 1965 at Groom Lake with various technical issues. Captive flights showed unforeseen aerodynamic difficulties. By late January 1966, more than a year after the first captive flight, everything seemed ready. The first D-21 launch was made on 5 March 1966 with a successful flight, with the D-21 flying 120 miles with limited fuel. A second D-12 flight was successful in April 1966 with the drone flying 1,200 miles, reaching Mach 3.3 and 90,000 feet. An accident on 30 July 1966 with a fully fueled D-21, on a planned checkout flight suffered from a non-start of the drone after its separation, causing it to collide with the M-21 launch aircraft. The two crewmen ejected and landed in the ocean 150 miles offshore. One crew member was picked up by a helicopter, but the other, having survived the aircraft breakup and ejection, drowned when sea water entered his pressure suit. Kelly Johnson personally cancelled the entire program, having had serious doubts from the start of the feasibility. A number of D-21s had already been produced, and rather than scrapping the whole effort, Johnson again proposed to the Air Force that they be launched from a B-52H bomber.
By late summer of 1967, the modification work to both the D-21 (now designated D-21B) and the B-52Hs were complete. The test program could now resume. The test missions were flown out of Groom Lake, with the actual launches over the Pacific. The first D-21B to be flown was Article 501, the prototype. The first attempt was made on 28 September 1967, and ended in complete failure. As the B-52 was flying toward the launch point, the D-21B fell off the pylon. The B-52H gave a sharp lurch as the drone fell free. The booster fired and was “quite a sight from the ground”. The failure was traced to a stripped nut on the forward right attachment point on the pylon. Several more tests were made, none of which met with success. However, the fact is that the resumptions of D-21 tests took place against a changing reconnaissance background. The A-12 had finally been allowed to deploy, and the SR-71 was soon to replace it. At the same time, new developments in reconnaissance satellite technology were nearing operation. Up to this point, the limited number of satellites available restricted coverage to the Soviet Union. A new generation of reconnaissance satellites could soon cover targets anywhere in the world. The satellites’ resolution would be comparable to that of aircraft, but without the slightest political risk. Time was running out for the Tagboard.
Several more test flights, including two over China, were made from Beale AFB, California, in 1969 and 1970, to varying degrees of success. On 15 July 1971, Kelly Johnson received a wire canceling the D-21B program. The remaining drones were transferred by a C-5A and placed in dead storage. The tooling used to build the D-21Bs was ordered destroyed. Like the A-12 Oxcart, the D-21B Tagboard drones remained a Black airplane, even in retirement. Their existence was not suspected until August 1976, when the first group was placed in storage at the Davis-Monthan AFB Military Storage and Disposition Center. A second group arrived in 1977. They were labeled “GTD-21Bs” (GT stood for ground training).
Davis-Monthan is an open base, with public tours of the storage area at the time, so the odd-looking drones were soon spotted and photos began appearing in magazines. Speculation about the D-21Bs circulated within aviation circles for years, and it was not until 1982 that details of the Tagboard program were released. However, it was not until 1993 that the B-52/D-21B program was made public. That same year, the surviving D-21Bs were released to museums.
Foreign technology evaluation
HAVE FERRY, the second of two MiG-17F
“Fresco”s loaned to the United States by Israel
During the Cold War, one of the missions carried out by the United States was the test and evaluation of captured Soviet fighter aircraft. Beginning in the late 1960s, and for several decades, Area 51 played host to an assortment of Soviet-built aircraft. Under the HAVE DOUGHNUT, HAVE DRILL and HAVE FERRY programs, the first MiGs flown in the United States were used to evaluate the aircraft in performance, technical, and operational capabilities, pitting the types against U.S. fighters.
This was not a new mission, as testing of foreign technology by the USAF began during World War II. After the war, testing of acquired foreign technology was performed by the Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC, which became very influential during the Korean War), under the direct command of the Air Materiel Control Department. In 1961 ATIC became the Foreign Technology Division (FTD), and was reassigned to Air Force Systems Command. ATIC personnel were sent anywhere where foreign aircraft could be found.
The focus of Air Force Systems Command limited the use of the fighter as a tool with which to train the front line tactical fighter pilots. Air Force Systems Command recruited its pilots from the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, who were usually graduates from various test pilot schools. Tactical Air Command selected its pilots primarily from the ranks of the Weapons School graduates.
In August 1966, Iraqi Air Force fighter pilot Captain Munir Redfa defected, flying his MiG-21 to Israel after being ordered to attack Iraqi Kurd villages with napalm. His aircraft was transferred to Groom Lake within a month to study. In 1968 the US Air Force and Navy jointly formed a project known as Have Doughnut in which Air Force Systems Command, Tactical Air Command, and the U.S. Navy’s Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) flew this acquired Soviet made aircraft in simulated air combat training. Because U.S. possession of the Soviet MiG-21 was, itself, secret, it was tested at Groom Lake. A joint Air Force-Navy team was assembled for a series of dogfight tests.
Comparisons between the F-4 and the MiG-21 indicated that, on the surface, they were evenly matched. But air combat was not just about technology. In the final analysis, it was the skill of the man in the cockpit. The Have Doughnut tests showed this most strongly. When the Navy or Air Force pilots flew the MiG-21, the results were a draw; the F-4 would win some fights, the MiG-21 would win others. There were no clear advantages. The problem was not with the planes, but with the pilots flying them. The pilots would not fly either plane to its limits. One of the Navy pilots was Marland W. “Doc” Townsend, then commander of VF-121, the F-4 training squadron at NAS Miramar. He was an engineer and a Korean War veteran and had flown almost every navy aircraft. When he flew against the MiG-21, he would outmaneuver it every time. The Air Force pilots would not go vertical in the MiG-21. The Have Doughnut project officer was Tom Cassidy, a pilot with VX-4, the Navy’s Air Development Squadron at Point Mugu. He had been watching as Townsend “waxed” the air force MiG-21 pilots. Cassidy climbed into the MiG-21 and went up against Townsend’s F-4. This time the result was far different. Cassidy was willing to fight in the vertical, flying the plane to the point where it was buffeting, just above the stall. Cassidy was able to get on the F-4’s tail. After the flight, they realized the MiG-21 turned better than the F-4 at lower speeds. The key was for the F-4 to keep its speed up. What had happened in the sky above Groom Lake was remarkable. An F-4 had defeated the MiG-21; the weakness of the Soviet plane had been found. Further test flights confirmed what was learned. It was also clear that the MiG-21 was a formidable enemy. United States pilots would have to fly much better than they had been to beat it. This would require a special school to teach advanced air combat techniques.
On 12 August 1968, two Syrian air force lieutenants, Walid Adham and Radfan Rifai, took off in a pair of MiG-17Fs on a training mission. They lost their way and, believing they were over Lebanon, landed at the Beset Landing Field in northern Israel. (One version has it that they were led astray by an Arabic-speaking Israeli). Prior to the end of 1968 these MiG-17s were transferred from Israeli stocks and added to the Area 51 test fleet. The aircraft were given USAF designations and fake serial numbers so that they could be identified in DOD standard flight logs. As in the earlier program, a small group of Air Force and Navy pilots conducted mock dogfights with the MiG-17s. Selected instructors from the Navy’s Top Gun school at NAS Miramar, California, were chosen to fly against the MiGs for familiarization purposes. Very soon, the MiG-17’s shortcomings became clear. It had an extremely simple, even crude, control system which lacked the power-boosted controls of American aircraft. The F-4’s twin engines were so powerful it could accelerate out of range of the MiG-17’s guns in thirty seconds. It was important for the F-4 to keep its distance from the MiG-17. As long as the F-4 was one and a half miles from the MiG-17, it was outside the reach of the Soviet fighter’s guns, but the MiG was within reach of the F-4’s missiles.
The data from the Have Doughnut and Have Drill tests were provided to the newly formed Top Gun school at NAS Miramar. By 1970, the Have Drill program was expanded; a few selected fleet F-4 crews were given the chance to fight the MiGs. The most important result of Project Have Drill is that no Navy pilot who flew in the project defeated the MiG-17 Fresco in the first engagement. The Have Drill dogfights were by invitation only. The other pilots based at Nellis Air Force Base were not to know about the U.S.-operated MiGs. To prevent any sightings, the airspace above the Groom Lake range was closed. On aeronautical maps, the exercise area was marked in red ink. The forbidden zone became known as “Red Square”.
During the remainder of the Vietnam War, the Navy kill ratio climbed to 8.33 to 1. In contrast, the Air Force rate improved only slightly to 2.83 to 1. The reason for this difference was Top Gun. The Navy had revitalized its air combat training, while the Air Force had stayed stagnant. Most of the Navy MiG kills were by Top Gun graduates.
In May 1973, Project Have Idea was formed which took over from the older Have Doughnut, Have Ferry and Have Drill projects and the project was transferred to the Tonopah Test Range Airport. At Tonopah testing of foreign technology aircraft continued and expanded throughout the 1970s and 1980s.
Area 51 also hosted another foreign materiel evaluation program called HAVE GLIB. This involved testing Soviet tracking and missile control radar systems. A complex of actual and replica Soviet-type threat systems began to grow around “Slater Lake”, a mile northwest of the main base, along with an acquired Soviet “Barlock” search radar placed at Tonopah Air Force Station. They were arranged to simulate a Soviet-style air defense complex.
The Air Force began funding improvements to Area 51 in 1977 under project SCORE EVENT. In 1979, the CIA transferred jurisdiction of the Area 51 site to the Air Force Flight Test Center at Edwards AFB, California. Mr. Sam Mitchell, the last CIA commander of Area 51, relinquished command to USAF Lt. Col. Larry D. McClain.
Have Blue/F-117 program
Underside view of Have Blue
F-117 flying over mountains
The Lockheed Have Blue prototype stealth fighter (a smaller proof-of-concept model of the F-117 Nighthawk) first flew at Groom in December 1977.
In 1978, the Air Force awarded a full-scale development contract for the F-117 to Lockheed Corporation’s Advanced Development Projects. On 17 January 1981 the Lockheed test team at Area 51 accepted delivery of the first full Scale Development (FSD) prototype 79–780, designated YF-117A. At 6:05 am on 18 June 1981 Lockheed Skunk Works test pilot Hal Farley lifted the nose of YF-117A 79–780′ off the runway of Area 51.
Meanwhile, Tactical Air Command (TAC) decided to set up a group-level organization to guide the F-117A to an initial operating capability. That organization became the 4450th Tactical Group (Initially designated “A Unit”), which officially activated on 15 October 1979 at Nellis AFB, Nevada, although the group was physically located at Area 51. The 4450th TG also operated the A-7D Corsair II as a surrogate trainer for the F-117A, and these operations continued until 15 October 1982 under the guise of an avionics test mission.
Flying squadrons of the 4450th TG were the 4450th Tactical Squadron (Initially designated “I Unit”) activated on 11 June 1981, and 4451st Tactical Squadron (Initially designated “P Unit”) on 15 January 1983. The 4450th TS, stationed at Area 51, was the first F-117A squadron, while the 4451st TS was stationed at Nellis AFB and was equipped with A-7D Corsair IIs painted in a dark motif, tail coded “LV”. Lockheed test pilots put the YF-117 through its early paces. A-7Ds was used for pilot training before any F-117A’s had been delivered by Lockheed to Area 51, later the A-7D’s were used for F-117A chase testing and other weapon tests at the Nellis Range.
15 October 1982 is important to the program because on that date Major Alton C. Whitley, Jr. became the first USAF 4450th TG pilot to fly the F-117A.
Although ideal for testing, Area 51 was not a suitable location for an operational group, so a new covert base had to be established for F-117 operations. Tonopah Test Range Airport was selected for operations of the first USAF F-117 unit, the 4450th Tactical Group (TG). From October 1979, the Tonopah Airport base was reconstructed and expanded. The 6,000 ft runway was lengthened to 10,000 ft. Taxiways, a concrete apron, a large maintenance hangar, and a propane storage tank were added.
By early 1982, four more YF-117As were operating at the southern end of the base, known as the “Southend” or “Baja Groom Lake”. After finding a large scorpion in their offices, the testing team (Designated “R Unit”) adopted it as their mascot and dubbed themselves the “Baja Scorpions”. Testing of a series of ultra-secret prototypes continued at Area 51 until mid-1981, when testing transitioned to the initial production of F-117 stealth fighters. The F-117s were moved to and from Area 51 by C-5 during darkness to maintain security. The aircraft were defueled, disassembled, cradled, and then loaded aboard the C-5 at night, flown to Lockheed, and unloaded at night before reassembly and flight testing. Groom performed radar profiling, F-117 weapons testing, and training of the first group of frontline USAF F-117 pilots.
While the “Baja Scorpions” were working on the F-117, there was also another group at work in secrecy, known as “the Whalers” working on Tacit Blue. A fly-by-wire technology demonstration aircraft with curved surfaces and composite material, to evade radar, it was a prototype, and never went into production. Nevertheless, this strange-looking aircraft was responsible for many of the stealth technology advances that were used on several other aircraft designs, and had a direct influence on the B-2; with first flight of Tacit Blue being performed on February 5, 1982, by Northrop Grumman test pilot, Richard G. Thomas.
Production FSD airframes from Lockheed were shipped to Area 51 for acceptance testing. As the Baja Scorpions tested the aircraft with functional check flights and L.O. verification, the operational airplanes were then transferred to the 4450th TG.
On 17 May 1982, the move of the 4450th TG from Groom Lake to Tonopah was initiated, with the final components of the move completed in early 1983. Production FSD airframes from Lockheed were shipped to Area 51 for acceptance testing. As the Baja Scorpions tested the aircraft with functional check flights and L.O. verification, the operational airplanes were then transferred to the 4450th TG at Tonopah.
The R-Unit was inactivated on 30 May 1989. Upon inactivation, the unit was reformed as Detachment 1, 57th Fighter Weapons Wing (FWW). In 1990 the last F-117A (843) was delivered from Lockheed. After completion of acceptance flights at Area 51 of this last new F-117A aircraft, the flight test squadron continued flight test duties of refurbished aircraft after modifications by Lockheed. In February/March 1992 the test unit moved from Area 51 to the USAF Palmdale Plant 42 and was integrated with the Air Force Systems Command 6510th Test Squadron. Some testing, especially RCS verification and other classified activity was still conducted at Area 51 throughout the operational lifetime of the F-117. The recently inactivated (2008) 410th Flight Test Squadron traces its roots, if not its formal lineage to the 4450th TG R-unit.
Since the F-117 became operational in 1983, operations at Groom Lake have continued. The base and its associated runway system were expanded, including expansion of housing and support facilities. In 1995, the federal government expanded the exclusionary area around the base to include nearby mountains that had hitherto afforded the only decent overlook of the base, prohibiting access to 3,972 acres (16.07 km2) of land formerly administered by the Bureau of Land Management. On October 22, 2015 a federal judge signed an order giving land that belonged to a Nevada family since the 1870s to the United States Air Force for expanding Area 51. According to the judge, the land that overlooked the base was taken to address security and safety concerns connected with their training and testing.
U.S. government’s positions on Area 51
A letter from the USAF replying to a query about Area 51
CIA document from 1967 referring to Area 51
The amount of information the United States government has been willing to provide regarding Area 51 has generally been minimal. The area surrounding the lake is permanently off-limits to both civilian and normal military air traffic. Security clearances are checked regularly; cameras and weaponry are not allowed. Even military pilots training in the NAFR risk disciplinary action if they stray into the exclusionary “box” surrounding Groom’s airspace. Surveillance is supplemented using buried motion sensors. Area 51 is a common destination for Janet, the de facto name of a small fleet of passenger aircraft operated on behalf of the United States Air Force to transport military personnel, primarily from McCarran International Airport.
The USGS topographic map for the area only shows the long-disused Groom Mine. A civil aviation chart published by the Nevada Department of Transportation shows a large restricted area, defined as part of the Nellis restricted airspace. The National Atlas page showing federal lands in Nevada shows the area as lying within the Nellis Air Force Base. Higher resolution (and more recent) images from other satellite imagery providers (including Russian providers and the IKONOS) are commercially available. These show the runway markings, base facilities, aircraft, and vehicles.
When documents that mention the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and operations at Groom are declassified, mentions of Area 51 and Groom Lake are routinely redacted. One exception is a 1967 memo from CIA director Richard Helms regarding the deployment of three OXCART aircraft from Groom to Kadena Air Base to perform reconnaissance over North Vietnam. Although most mentions of OXCART’s home base are redacted in this document, as is a map showing the aircraft’s route from there to Okinawa, the redactor appears to have missed one mention: page 15 (page 17 in the PDF), section No. 2 ends “Three OXCART aircraft and the necessary task force personnel will be deployed from Area 51 to Kadena.”
On 25 June 2013, CIA released an official history of the U-2 and OXCART projects that officially acknowledged the existence of Area 51. The release was in response to a Freedom of Information Act request submitted in 2005 by Jeffrey T. Richelson of George Washington University‘s National Security Archives, and contain numerous references to Area 51 and Groom Lake, along with a map of the area.
A closed-circuit TV camera watches over the perimeter of Area 51
In 1994, five unnamed civilian contractors and the widows of contractors Walter Kasza and Robert Frost sued the USAF and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Their suit, in which they were represented by George Washington University law professor Jonathan Turley, alleged they had been present when large quantities of unknown chemicals had been burned in open pits and trenches at Groom. Biopsies taken from the complainants were analyzed by Rutgers University biochemists, who found high levels of dioxin, dibenzofuran, and trichloroethylene in their body fat. The complainants alleged they had sustained skin, liver, and respiratory injuries due to their work at Groom, and that this had contributed to the deaths of Frost and Kasza. The suit sought compensation for the injuries they had sustained, claiming the USAF had illegally handled toxic materials, and that the EPA had failed in its duty to enforce the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (which governs handling of dangerous materials). They also sought detailed information about the chemicals to which they were allegedly exposed, hoping this would facilitate the medical treatment of survivors. Congressman Lee H. Hamilton, former chairman of the House Intelligence Committee, told 60 Minutes reporter Lesley Stahl, “The Air Force is classifying all information about Area 51 in order to protect themselves from a lawsuit.”
Citing the State Secrets Privilege, the government petitioned trial judge U.S. District Judge Philip Pro (of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada in Las Vegas) to disallow disclosure of classified documents or examination of secret witnesses, alleging this would expose classified information and threaten national security. When Judge Pro rejected the government’s argument, President Bill Clinton issued a Presidential Determination, exempting what it called, “The Air Force’s Operating Location Near Groom Lake, Nevada” from environmental disclosure laws. Consequently, Pro dismissed the suit due to lack of evidence. Turley appealed to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, on the grounds that the government was abusing its power to classify material. Secretary of the Air Force Sheila E. Widnall filed a brief that stated that disclosures of the materials present in the air and water near Groom “can reveal military operational capabilities or the nature and scope of classified operations.” The Ninth Circuit rejected Turley’s appeal, and the U.S. Supreme Court refused to hear it, putting an end to the complainants’ case.
The President continues to annually issue a determination continuing the Groom exception. This, and similarly tacit wording used in other government communications, is the only formal recognition the U.S. Government has ever given that Groom Lake is more than simply another part of the Nellis complex.
An unclassified memo on the safe handling of F-117 Nighthawk material was posted on an Air Force web site in 2005. This discussed the same materials for which the complainants had requested information (information the government had claimed was classified). The memo was removed shortly after journalists became aware of it.
Civil aviation identification
In December 2007, airline pilots noticed that the base had appeared in their aircraft navigation systems’ latest Jeppesen database revision with the ICAO airport identifier code of KXTA and listed as “Homey Airport”. The probably inadvertent release of the airport data led to advice by the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association (AOPA) that student pilots should be explicitly warned about KXTA, not to consider it as a waypoint or destination for any flight even though it now appears in public navigation databases.
Area 51 border and warning sign stating that “photography is prohibited” and that “use of deadly force is authorized” under the terms of the 1950 McCarran Internal Security Act
Signage around the base perimeter advises that deadly force is authorized against trespassers.
1974 Skylab photography
In January 2006, space historian Dwayne A. Day published an article in online aerospace magazine The Space Review titled “Astronauts and Area 51: the Skylab Incident”. The article was based on a memo written in 1974 to CIA director William Colby by an unknown CIA official. The memo reported that astronauts on board Skylab 4 had, as part of a larger program, inadvertently photographed a location of which the memo said:
There were specific instructions not to do this. <redacted> was the only location which had such an instruction.
Although the name of the location was obscured, the context led Day to believe that the subject was Groom Lake. As Day noted:
[I]n other words, the CIA considered no other spot on Earth to be as sensitive as Groom Lake.
The memo details debate between federal agencies regarding whether the images should be classified, with Department of Defense agencies arguing that it should, and NASA and the State Department arguing against classification. The memo itself questions the legality of unclassified images to be retroactively classified.
Remarks on the memo, handwritten apparently by DCI (Director of Central Intelligence) Colby himself, read:
[Secretary of State Rusk] did raise it—said State Dept. people felt strongly. But he inclined leave decision to me (DCI)—I confessed some question over need to protect since:
- USSR has it from own sats
- What really does it reveal?
- If exposed, don’t we just say classified USAF work is done there?
The declassified documents do not disclose the outcome of discussions regarding the Skylab imagery. The behind-the-scenes debate proved moot as the photograph appeared in the Federal Government’s Archive of Satellite Imagery along with the remaining Skylab 4 photographs, with no record of anyone noticing until Day identified it in 2007.
Other satellite imagery
Other satellite imagery is also available, including images that show what appears to be F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft stationed on the base.
UFO and other conspiracy theories
Its secretive nature and undoubted connection to classified aircraft research, together with reports of unusual phenomena, have led Area 51 to become a focus of modern UFO and other conspiracy theories. Some of the activities mentioned in such theories at Area 51 include:
Many of the hypotheses concern underground facilities at Groom or at Papoose Lake (also known as “S-4 location”), 8.5 miles (13.7 km) south, and include claims of a transcontinental underground railroad system, a disappearing airstrip (nicknamed the “Cheshire Airstrip”, after Lewis Carroll‘s Cheshire cat) which briefly appears when water is sprayed onto its camouflaged asphalt, and engineering based on alien technology. Publicly available satellite imagery, however, reveals clearly visible landing strips at Groom Dry Lake, but not at Papoose Lake.
In the mid-1950s, civilian aircraft flew under 20,000 feet while military aircraft flew under 40,000 feet. Once the U-2 began flying at above 60,000 feet, an unexpected side effect was an increasing number of UFO sighting reports. Sightings occurred most often during early evenings hours, when airline pilots flying west saw the U-2’s silver wings reflect the setting sun, giving the aircraft a “fiery” appearance. Many sighting reports came to the Air Force’s Project Blue Book, which investigated UFO sightings, through air-traffic controllers and letters to the government. The project checked U-2 and later OXCART flight records to eliminate the majority of UFO reports it received during the late 1950s and 1960s, although it could not reveal to the letter writers the truth behind what they saw. Similarly, veterans of experimental projects such as OXCART and NERVA at Area 51 agree that their work (including 2,850 OXCART test flights alone) inadvertently prompted many of the UFO sightings and other rumors:
The shape of OXCART was unprecedented, with its wide, disk-like fuselage designed to carry vast quantities of fuel. Commercial pilots cruising over Nevada at dusk would look up and see the bottom of OXCART whiz by at 2,000-plus mph. The aircraft’s titanium body, moving as fast as a bullet, would reflect the sun’s rays in a way that could make anyone think, UFO.
They believe that the rumors helped maintain secrecy over Area 51’s actual operations. While the veterans deny the existence of a vast underground railroad system, many of Area 51’s operations did (and presumably still do) occur underground.
Several people have claimed knowledge of events supporting Area 51 conspiracy theories. These have included Bob Lazar, who claimed in 1989 that he had worked at Area 51’s “Sector Four (S-4)”, said to be located underground inside the Papoose Range near Papoose Lake. Lazar has stated he was contracted to work with alien spacecraft that the U.S. government had in its possession.
Similarly, the 1996 documentary Dreamland directed by Bruce Burgess included an interview with a 71-year-old mechanical engineer who claimed to be a former employee at Area 51 during the 1950s. His claims included that he had worked on a “flying disc simulator” which had been based on a disc originating from a crashed extraterrestrial craft and was used to train US pilots. He also claimed to have worked with an extraterrestrial being named “J-Rod” and described as a “telepathic translator”.
In 2004, Dan Burisch (pseudonym of Dan Crain) claimed to have worked on cloning alien viruses at Area 51, also alongside the alien named “J-Rod”. Burisch’s scholarly credentials are the subject of much debate, as he was apparently working as a Las Vegas parole officer in 1989 while also earning a PhD at State University of New York (SUNY).
In popular culture
Novels, films, television programs, and other fictional portrayals of Area 51 describe it—or a fictional counterpart—as a haven for extraterrestrials, time travel, and sinister conspiracies, often linking it with the Roswell UFO incident.
- In the 1996 action film Independence Day, the United States military uses alien technology captured at Roswell to attack the invading alien fleet from Area 51. The president of the United States dismissed the site’s existence as a myth until his secretary revealed it to him, at which he questioned where the off-the-book-funding comes from. In the 2016 sequel, Independence Day: Resurgence, which takes place 20 years after the events of the first film, Area 51 has become the Space Defense Headquarters for Earth Space Defense (ESD).
- The 2015 film Area 51 (film) is a mockumentary which depicts four individuals attempting to sneak into Area 51.
- The “Hangar 51” government warehouse of the Indiana Jones films stores, among other exotic items, the recovered Ark of the Covenant and an alien corpse from Roswell.
- In the television series Stargate SG-1, Area 51 serves as a storage and testing facility for advanced weapon systems and aircraft/spacecraft designed using alien technology discovered after the Stargate was activated. The series states that prior to the Stargate’s activation, rumors of alien technology or individuals existing at Area 51 were unfounded.
- The television series Seven Days takes place inside Area 51, with the base containing a covert NSA time travel operation using alien technology recovered from Roswell.
- The 1995 arcade game Area 51 is a light gun shooter set within the base. The player has to defeat alien Kronn and zombie personnel in order to arm the base nuclear self destruct and prevent further infestation.
- The 2005 video game Area 51 is set in the base, and mentions the Roswell and moon landing hoax conspiracy theories.
- Bob Mayer‘s Area 51 novel series (originally written under his pen name, Robert Doherty) is set on the base, and Operation Highjump is said to have been a cover for an expedition to excavate flying saucers buried under Antarctica’s ice shelf by long-ago extraterrestrial visitors.
- The 2000 video games Deus Ex and Perfect Dark feature Area 51, and the 1995 arcade game Area 51 puts the player in control of a soldier attempting to stop the takeover of the base by aliens.
- Episode 7 of season 6 of the TV series Archer, titled “Nellis”, is set in Area 51, where Pam and Krieger encounter extraterrestrials. However, Area 51 is fictionalized as part of nearby Nellis Air Force Base, rather than being part of Edwards Air Force Base.
- At least two Warhammer 40K stories involve unrelated places named Regio Quinquaginta-Unus. In The Greater good (a Ciaphas Cain novel by Sandy Mitchell) it’s a secret Adeptus Mechanicus site holding alien artifacts, and, it turns out, live Genestealer specimens as well.
National Air and Space Intelligence Center
The National Air and Space Intelligence Center (NASIC) is the United States Air Force unit for analyzing military intelligence on foreign air and space forces, weapons, and systems. NASIC assessments of aerospace performance characteristics, capabilities, and vulnerabilities are used to shape national security and defense policies and supports weapons treaty negotiations and verification.
In 1917 the Foreign Data Section of the Army Signal Corps’ Airplane Engineering Department was established at McCook Field, and a NASIC predecessor operated the Army Aeronautical Museum of the Material Division, August 22, 1935.The Office of the Chief of Air Corps’s Information Division had become the OCAC Intelligence Division by 1939, which transferred into the USAAF as AC/AS, Intelligence and was known as A-2 (in April, 1942, the Air Intelligence School was at the Harrisburg Academy.) The United States Army Air Forces evaluated foreign aircraft during World War II with the “T-2 Intelligence Department at Wright Field and Freeman Field, Indiana”. In July 1944, Wright Field analysts fired a V-1 engine reconstructed from “Robot Blitz” wreckage (an entire V-1 was reconstructed at Republic Aviation by September 8). Post-war, Operation Lusty recruited German technology experts who were interrogated prior to working in the United States, e.g., Dr. Herbert Wagner at a Point Mugu USMC detachment and Walter Dornberger at Bell Aircraft. The “capability…anticipated for Soviet intercontinental jet bombers” (e.g., in NSC 20/4 in the fall of 1945) determined a Radar Fence was needed for sufficient U.S. warning and that the “1954 Interceptor” (F-106) was needed (specified in the January 13, 1949, Air Development Order): “the appearance of a Soviet jet bomber [was in the] 1954…May Day parade”.
“By 1944, it had become obvious that German aeronautical technology was superior in many ways, to that of this country, and we needed to obtain this technology and make use of it,” said P-47 and Messerschmitt ME-262 pilot Army Air Forces Lieutenant Roy Brown during a speech at NASIC in 2014. To accomplish this task, then Col Harold E. Watson was sent from Wright Field to Europe in 1944, to locate German aircraft of advanced design. Watson would become an integral part of forming the intelligence unit that would eventually become NASIC.
Air Technical Intelligence Center
On May 21, 1951, the Air Technical Intelligence Center (ATIC) was established as a USAF field activity of the Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence under the direct command of the Air Materiel Control Department. ATIC analyzed engine parts and the tail section of a Korean War Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 and in July, the center received a complete MiG-15 that had crashed. ATIC also obtained IL-10 and Yak-9 aircraft in operational condition, and ATIC analysts monitored the flight test program at Kadena Air Base of a MiG-15 flown to Kimpo Air Base in September 1953 by a North Korean defector. ATIC awarded a contract to Battelle Memorial Institute for translation and analysis of materiel and documents gathered during the Korean War. ATIC/Battelle analysis allowed FEAF to develop engagement tactics for F-86 fighters. In 1958 ATIC had a Readix Computer in Building 828, 1 of 6 WPAFB buildings used by the unit prior to the center built in 1976. After Discoverer 29 (launched April 30, 1961) photographed the “first Soviet ICBM offensive launch complex” at Plesetsk; the JCS published Directive 5105.21, “Defense Intelligence Agency”, the Defense Intelligence Agency was created on October 1, and USAF intelligence organizations/units were reorganized.
Foreign Technology Division
In 1961 ATIC became the Foreign Technology Division (FTD) which was reassigned to Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), and FTD intelligence estimates were subsequently provided to the National Security Council through the 1962 United States Intelligence Board (cf. the CIA’s Board of National Estimates). FTD’s additional location at the Tonopah Test Range Airport conducted test and evaluation of captured Soviet fighter aircraft (AFSC recruited its pilots from the Edwards AFB Air Force Test Center). The aircraft of the 1966 Iraqi Air Force MiG-21 defection was transferred to Nevada within a month of the flight, and the 1968 US Air Force and Navy Have Doughnut project flew the aircraft at Area 51 for simulated air combat training (renamed Have Drill and transferred to the Tonopah TTR c. 1968). U.S. casualties flying foreign aircraft included those in the 1979 Tonopah MiG-17 crash during training versus a Northrop F-5 and the 1984 Little Skull Mountain MiG-23 crash which killed a USAF general.
FTD detachments were located in Virginia, California (Det 2), Germany, Japan (Det 4), and Det 5—first in Massachusetts and later Colorado (Buckley ANGB). By 1968 FTD had an “Aerial Phenomenon Office” and in 1983, FTD/OLAI at the Cheyenne Mountain Complex published the Analysis of Cosmos 1220 and Cosmos 1306 Fragments.
National Air Intelligence Center
In October 1993 at the end of the Cold War, FTD became the National Air Intelligence Center as “a component of the Air Intelligence Agency“, and by 2005 had a Signals Exploitation Division after being renamed the National Air and Space Intelligence Center on February 15, 2003.
NASIC’s Defense Intelligence Space Threat Committee coordinates “a wide variety of complex space/counterspace analytical activities.” The Center includes a library with interlibrary loan to Air University, etc.
- Established, activated, and organized as Foreign Technology Division on 1 July 1961
- Redesignated: Air Force Foreign Technology Center on 1 October 1991
- Redesignated: Foreign Aerospace Science and Technology Center on 1 January 1992
- Redesignated: National Air Intelligence Center on 1 October 1993
- Redesignated: National Air and Space Intelligence Center on 20 February 2003
- Brig Gen Arthur J. Pierce, February 1961 – July 1964
- Brig Gen Arthur J. Pierce, July 1964 – August 1966
- Col Raymond S. Sleeper, August 1966 – November 1968
- Col George R. Weinbrenner, November 1968 – July 1974
- Col James W. Rawers, July 1974 – July 1975
- Col John B. Marks, Jr. , July 1975 – January 1977
- Col Howard E. Wright, January 1977 – June 1981
- Col David S. Watrous, June 1981 – February 1983
- Col Earl A. Pontius, February 1983 – June 1986
- Col Gary Culp, June 1986 – August 1988
- Brig Gen Francis C. Gideon, August 1988 – June 1992
- Col James E. Miller, Jr. , June 1992 – July 1994
- Col Gary D. Payton, July 1994 – August 1996
- Col Kenneth K. Dumm, August 1996 – December 1997
- Col Richard G. Annas, December 1997 – September 2000
- Col Steven R. Capenos, September 2000 – July 2002
- Col Mark C. Christian, July 2002 – September 2004
- Col Joseph J. Pridotkas, September 2004 – July 2006
- Col Karen A. Cleary, July 2006 – June 2008
- Col D. Scott George (BG Select), June 2008 – June 2010
- Col Kathleen C. Sakura, June 2010 – May 2012
- Col Aaron M. Prupas, May 2012 – June 2014
- Col Leah G. Lauderback, June 2014 – May 2016
- Col Sean Larkin, May 2016 – Pres.
MAJESTIC TWELVE is an advisory team of scientists who’s only purpose is to evaluate information and make recomendations. This team does exist as a scattered bunch of men who do not meet regularly as a group. The information gathered by the control group MAJI is released to MAJESTIC TWELVE when study is needed. MAJESTIC TWELVE has never been given the whole truth. MAJI is the MAJESTIC AGENCY FOR JOINT INTELLIGENCE and has total control of information and interface with the aliens in dealings with the United States Government.
Some of the documents released by Moore were changed from the original with the deliberate intent to mislead UFO researchers. I do not know who is responsible but I believe that the Government is behind the whole thing. The rest of the documents are deliberate frauds. I am releasing the truth which I have obtained from excellent sources within the intelligence community in order to set the record straight.
MAJI is the sole agency in control and responsible for every past and present consequence of contact with the alien presence. MAJIC is the security classification of all projects and information connected with the aliens, their craft, their bases, and dealings with the United States Government. MAJIC means MAJI CONTROLED. MAJIC is the highest security classification in the nation.
The name of the overall project is GRUDGE and always has been. GRUDGE is the proword for AQUARIUS and a few other projects as you will see when you read the rest of this file.
The AQUARIUS document released by Moore which he claims was given to him by Mr. Graham was changed and I am including a reconstructed document as it was presented to me by one of my sources. I am also including all the information (in short form) that I presently have regarding the U.S. Government and the Aliens. This information has been reviewed by 3 different people who know the information but do not know each other and they have made some corrections to the document. If the information deviates somewhat from information that I have previously released it is due to those corrections. My previous information was from memory of documents seen over 16 years ago and I am pleased that my memory has withstood the rigors of time quite well. In case you doubt that I had the information previous to this release you may check with Stan Friedman, Tom Mickus, Don Ecker, John Lear, and Bryon Smith as I had given the information to them some time ago.
Any document you see where I stated that MAJESTIC TWELVE was the control group was a test of Moore et al and was never to be posted or released publicly. The public posting of those documents was done by Jim Spieser against my wishes. He was told that the information was mixed as a test but he posted them anyway. They contain true and false information and should be ignored. The information contained in this file is true and correct to the best of my knowledge and to the knowledge of my sources. THIS IS THE ONLY FILE REGARDING THE GOVERNMENT AND THE ALIENS THAT I CAN HONESTLY SAY IS THE TRUE INFORMATION IN WHOLE AS I KNOW IT. It is backed by the John Lear Hypothesis, Paul Bennewicz’ information, William Stienman’s information, the Fenwick interview, and other bits of information which is in the hands of UFOLOGISTS. The test of time will prove this information to be true and correct. Nothing in this file contradicts my PUBLIC02.DOC. This file should clear the air regarding my statements and actions thus far. In this file you will find information which you have never had before and it should open up numerous paths for SERIOUS UFO researchers to explore.
I have many documents and letters to back up this information much of which I have already released and much of which is the product of your own research. John Lear has in his possession many letters and documents which will also back up this file. William Stienman is another. I would also direct you to Don Ecker’s SPOOK.DOC, and to bits of Moore’s information (fraudulent though it may be it does contain some truth). The Fenwick interview is another source of information, along with the FEDEX files on Paranet Alpha. The Bill English file is another excellent source as he really did read the GRUDGE/BLUE BOOK REPORT NO. 13. The letter from the man who participated in Project PLUTO is right on the money although he mistook the term PLUTO/POUNCE as being project PLUTO that he worked on. He was a part of POUNCE which comes under Project PLUTO thus PLUTO/POUNCE. The first word is always the Proword and parent project while the second word is the project itself.
Another FEDEX file contains the account of a man who worked at AREA 51 in Nevada and stumbled upon Project REDLIGHT. The correct name is GRUDGE/REDLIGHT. Put ALL your information together from ALL your different files you will see that this information is all there for you to see and verify from different sources who neither know each other or even know about each other in most instances. It is all there and all you need to do is put it together. I must admit that I had a much easier time of it having seen the information and having excellent sources. I knew what to look for, but at least I looked.
William Moore must know much more than he lets on. He has to know something other than the phony information that he has released or he would not go to such pains to alter the information (by his own admission). I cannot believe that he has been so completely duped after having read “The Roswell Incident”.
PROJECT GRUDGE/AQUARIUS (TS/MAJIC)
ATTENTION: THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY MAJI. MAJI IS SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ITS SUBJECT MATTER.
DOCUMENT CONTROL: ECN 0001
CLASSIFIED BY: MJ1/MAJI
(TS/ORCON) (PROWORD): GRUDGE Contains 16 volumes of documented information collected from the beginning of the United States’ investigation of Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs) and Identified Alien Crafts (IAC). The Project was originally established in 1953, by order of President Eisenhower, under control of CIA and MAJI. In 1960, the Project’s name was changed from Project SIGN to Project Aquarius. The Project was funded by CIA confidential funds (non-appropriated). The Project assumed full responsibility for investigation and intelligence of UFOs/IACs Dec 1969 after Project Grudge/Blue Book was closed. The purpose of Project Aquarius was to collect all scientific, technological, medical and intelligence information from UFO/IAC sightings and contacts with alien life forms. This orderly file of collected information has been used to advance the United States’ Space Program.
(TS/ORCON) The preceeding briefing is an historical account of the United States Government’s investigation of Aerial Phenomenas, Recovered Alien Aircraft, and contacts with extra- terrestrial Life Forms.
THE PROJECTS UNDER PROJECT AQUARIUS:
1. (TS/ORCON) PROJECT PLATO: (PROWORD: AQUARIUS) Originally established as part of Project SIGN in 1954. Its mission was to establish diplomatic relations with Aliens. This Project was successful when mutually acceptable terms were agreed upon. These terms involved the exchange of technology for secrecy of Alien presence and non interference in Alien affairs. Aliens agreed to provide MAJI with a list of human contacts on a periodic basis. This Project is continuing at a site in New Mexico.
2. (TS/ORCON) PROJECT SIGMA: (PROWORD: AQUARIUS) Originally established as part of Project SIGN in 1954. Became a separate project in 1976. Its mission was to establish communication with Aliens. This Project met with positive success (sic) when in 1959, the United States established primative communications with the Aliens. On April 25, 1964, a USAF intelligence officer met with Aliens at Holloman AFB, New Mexico. The contact lasted for approximately three hours. After several attempted methods of communicating the intelligence officer managed to exchange basic information with the Aliens (Atch 7). This Project is continuing at a site in New Mexico.
3. (TS/ORCON) PROJECT REDLIGHT: (PROWORD GRUDGE) Originally established in 1954. Its mission was to test fly a recovered Alien aircraft. First attempts resulted in destruction of the craft and death of the pilot. This Project was resumed in 1972. This Project is continuing in Nevada.
4. (TS/ORCON) PROJECT SNOWBIRD: (PROWORD REDLIGHT) Originally established in 1954. Its mission was to develop, using conventional technology, and fly a flying saucer type craft for the public. This Project was successful when a craft was built and flown in front of the press. This Project was used to explain UFO sightings and to divert public attention from Project REDLIGHT.
MAJESTY——–The Proword for MAJI. The Proword for MAJESTIC TWELVE. The Proword for GRUDGE. MAJESTY is the only word on the cover sheet of the AQUARIUS document. It is plain that the executive decision makers are MAJESTY. MAJESTY is the name of all the efforts combined. On the executive level MAJESTY IS EVERYTHING TO DO WITH THE ALIENS AND EVERYTHING CONNECTED WITH THEM. The way intelligence and TOP SECRET information is protected accounts for the previous confusion regarding the control of this subject. Everything under MAJESTY is broken down into compartments and difficult to trace to a higher authority. ALL information of important nature of any kind is handled in this manner and is designed to confuse those who would attempt to uncover the secret. MAJESTY IS THE WORD YOU ALL HAVE BEEN LOOKING FOR THAT TIES IT ALL TOGETHER.
MAJI———–MAJESTIC AGENCY for JOINT INTELLIGENCR The TOP SECRET/MAJIC project control group responsible for EVERY ASPECT OF INTERFACE WITH THE ALIEN LIFE FORMS INCLUDING SECURITY & INTELLIGENCE, AND DISINFORMATION TO PREVENT PUBLIC OR FOREIGN DISCLOSURE OF THE ALIEN PRESENCE. MAJI IS RESPONSIBLE ONLY TO THE PRESIDENT. (THIS IS WHY ALL DOCUMENTS REFERRING TO “MAJESTIC” OR ANY OTHER FORM OF THAT NAME ARE WRONG.) MAJI IS ONGOING IN WASHINGTON DC.
MAJESTIC TWELVE—–A selected team of experts in many different fields who evaluate information, technology, biology and other facets of the alien presence in order to better understand the phenomenon. MAJESTIC TWELVE makes recommendations and presents scientific dirrection when needed. MAJESTIC TWELVE does not know all the information and does not meet as a group. Members are given information on a need to know basis only. Biologists, for example, are not given information regarding any other subject.
MAJIC———-SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ALL MAJI AND AQUARIUS INFORMATION. MAJIC MEANS “MAJI CONTROLLED”. MAJIC IS THE HIGHEST SECURITY CLASSIFICATION IN THE NATION.
MJ-1———–DIRECTOR OF MAJI. THE DIRECTOR OF THE CIA IS USUALLY MJ-1 AND REPORTS ONLY TO THE PRESIDENT. (OTHER MEMBERS OF MAJI ARE DESIGNATED MJ-2, MJ-3, MJ-4, etc. This is why MJ-12 CANNOT BE USED AS A NAME FOR THE CONTROL GROUP AS IT WOULD CAUSE CONFUSION IN MEANING, i.e. (IS IT REFERRING TO MJ-12 THE PERSON OR MJ-12 THE GROUP.) ANY REFFERENCE TO MJ-12 IS TO A PERSON AND NOTHING ELSE. (THIS IS WHY ANY DOCUMENT REFFERING TO “MJ-12” AS A “GROUP” IS WRONG.)
BLUE TEAM——THE FIRST PROJECT RESPONSIBLE FOR REACTION/RECOVERY OF DOWNED/CRASHED ALIEN CRAFT AND/OR ALIENS. THIS WAS AN AIR FORCE MATERIAL COMMAND PROJECT.
SIGN———–THE SECOND PROJECT RESPONSIBLE FOR COLLECTION OF INTELLIGENCE AND DETERMINING WHETHER ALIEN PRESENCE CONSTITUTED A THREAT TO THE NATIONAL SECURITY. SIGN ABSORBED BLUE TEAM. THIS WAS AN AIR FORCE/CIA PROJECT.
GRUDGE———THE OVERALL PROJECT WITH THE SAME MISSION AS SIGN. GRUDGE ABSORBED SIGN. GRUDGE IS THE PROWORD FOR AQUARIUS.
AQUARIUS——-THE THIRD AND FINAL PROJECT. AQUARIUS ABSORBED ALL PREVIOUS PROJECTS. FUNDED BY CIA CONFIDENTIAL NON APPROPRIATED FUNDS. THE PURPOSE OF PROJECT AQUARIUS IS TO COLLECT ALL SCIENTIFIC, TECHNOLOGICAL, MEDICAL AND INTELLIGENCE INFORMATION FROM UFO/IAC SIGHTINGS AND CONTACTS WITH ALIEN LIFE FORMS. THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING. This project began as an Air Force project under SIGN but was taken over by NSA. ALL PROJECTS CONNECTED WITH THE ALIENS ARE NOW INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY CONTROLLED.
SIGMA———-SIGMA WAS TASKED WITH COMMUNICATING WITH THE ALIENS. THIS OPERATION WAS SUCCESSFUL.
PLATO———-PLATO WAS ESTABLISHED TO FORM DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH THE ALIEN LIFE FORMS. THIS PROJECT WAS SUCCESSFUL. THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING.
POUNCE———THIS PROJECT WAS FORMED TO RECOVER ALL DOWNED/CRASHED CRAFT AND ALIENS. THIS PROJECT PROVIDED COVER STORIES/OPERATIONS TO MASK TRUE ENDEAVOR WHEN NECCESSARY. COVERS WHICH HAVE BEEN USED: CRASHED EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT, CONSTRUCTION, MINING, ETC. THIS PROJECT HAS BEEN SUCCESSFUL. THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING.
PLUTO———-ESTABLISHED TO EVALUATE ALL UFO/IAC INFORMATION PERTAINING TO SPACE TECHNOLOGY. THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING. PLUTO IS THE PROWORD FOR POUNCE.
REDLIGHT——-MISSION WAS TO TEST FLY RECOVERED ALIEN CRAFT THIS PROJECT WAS POSTPONED AFTER EVERY ATTEMPT RESULTED IN DESTRUCTION OF THE CRAFT AND DEATH OF THE PILOTS. THIS PROJECT WAS CARRIED OUT AT AREA 51 IN NEVADA (GROOM LAKE), and some flights were performed at DREAMLAND. PROJECT REDLIGHT WAS RESUMED IN 1972. THIS PROJECT HAS BEEN PARTIALLY SUCCESSFUL. UFO SIGHTINGS OF CRAFT ACCOMPANIED BY BLACK HELICOPTORS ARE PROJECT REDLIGHT ASSETS. THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING AT AREA 51 IN NEVADA.
SNOWBIRD——-Established as a COVER for Project REDLIGHT. A flying saucer “TYPE” craft was built using conventional technology. It was unvieled to the press and flown in public on several occassions. The purpose was to explain accidental sightings or disclosures of REDLIGHT as having been the SNOWBIRD craft. This was a very successful disinformation operation. This Project is only activated when needed. It has not been used for many years. This project is currently in mothballs until needed again. (This is another reason that Moore’s information is fraudulent.)
LUNA———–CODE NAME FOR THE ALIEN UNDERGROUND BASE. THE BASE IS ALIEN CONTROLLED AND DELTA/ALIEN PROTECTED. LUNA IS ONGOING IN NEW MEXICO. ALIEN DETACHMENTS EXIST AT DREAMLAND AND AT AREA 51.
FAR SIDE OF THE MOON —- An alien base on the dark side of the moon where large machines were sighted by the Apollo Astronauts. It is believed to be a mining operation.
NRO————NATIONAL RECON ORGANIZATION. BASED AT FORT CARSON, COLORADO. RESPONSIBLE FOR SECURITY FOR ALL ALIEN OR ALIEN CRAFT CONNECTED PROJECTS. USE UNMARKED BLACK HELICOPTORS. FOR ALL ALIEN OR ALIEN CRAFT CONNECTED ONGOING.
DELTA———-SECURITY TEAMS FROM NRO ESPECIALLY TRAINED TO PROVIDE ALIEN TASKED PROJECTS/LUNA SECURITY. (MEN IN BLACK) THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING.
GABRIEL——–THIS PROJECT WAS TASKED WITH DEVELOPING A LOW FREQUENCY PULSED SOUND GENERATOR. IT WAS DETERMINED THAT THE ALIEN WEAPONS AND CRAFT WOULD BE VULNERABLE TO THIS WEAPON. IT IS QUESTIONABLE WHETHER THIS PROJECT EXISTS TODAY. IT WAS DERIVED FROM TECHNOLOGY CAPTURED FROM GERMANY DURING AND AFTER WWII. My contacts have verified its previous existance but cannot verify whether it is ongoing or has been terminated.
EXCALIBUR——ESTABLISHED TO DEVELOP A WEAPON WHICH WOULD DESTROY THE ALIEN UNDERGROUND BASE AND ANY FUTURE UNDERGROUND BASES WHICH THE ALIENS MIGHT CONSTRUCT. IT IS TO BE A MISSILE CAPABLE OF PENETRATING 1000 METERS OF TUFA/HARD PACKED SOIL SUCH AS THAT FOUND IN NEW MEXICO WITH NO OPERATIONAL DAMAGE. MISSILE APPOGEE NOT TO EXCEED 30,000 FEET AGL IMPACT MUST NOT DEVIATE IN EXCESS OF 50 METERS FROM DESIGNATED TARGET. DEVICE WILL CARRY A 1 MEGATON NUCLEAR WARHEAD. THIS PROJECT IS ONGOING AT WX DIVISION, LANL, LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO, AND IS STILL IN DEVELOPMENT.
ALIEN CRAFT—-THESE ARE FLYING CRAFT WHICH USE GRAVITY AND ELECTRO MAGNETIC FIELDS TO FLY. I REALLY DID NOT UNDERSTAND THE PRINCIPLE BUT SOMEHOW GRAVITY CAN BECOME ELECTRO-MAGNETIC ENERGY AND THAT IS THE ONLY WAY THAT I KNOW TO EXPLAIN IT. THE CRAFT HAS AN ATOMIC REACTOR ON BOARD ABOUT THE SIZE OF A FOOTBALL. THE CRAFT CAN “CLOAK”. THE WAY I UNDERSTOOD IT IS THAT IT BENDS LIGHT RAYS (AND CAN DO THE SAME WITH RADAR) SO THAT YOU LOOK AT THE CRAFT AND SEE ONLY WHAT IS BEHIND IT. THEY CAN DO THIS WHEN THEY DO NOT WANT TO BE SEEN. A LOT OF THE TECHNOLOGY OF OUR STEALTH BOMBER CAME OUT OF THIS. A LOT OF THE INFORMATION REGARDING THE ALIEN CRAFT THAT I SAW HAD A LOT TO DO WITH EINSTIENS THEORY OF RELATIVITY. THERE WAS A LOT OF INFORMATION REGARDING SPACE/TIME “FOLDS”. MY EDUCATION WAS NOT EVEN IN THIS BALLPARK SO I REALLY CAN’T TELL YOU MUCH BUT I LEARNED THAT THEIR CRAFT ARE NOT ALL THAT STABLE IN AIR (THATS WHY SO MANY CRASH) BUT ARE STILL ABLE TO DO THINGS THAT WE HAVE ONLY DREAMED OF. THEY CAN TRAVEL THROUGH SPACE ACROSS/THROUGH A “FOLD” IN A VERY SHORT TIME.
ALF———– ALF IS THE ABREVIATION FOR “ALIEN LIFE FORM”. THIS IS THE ONLY TERM THAT I HAVE SEEN USED TO DESCRIBE THE ALIENS. THE ALIEN LIFE FORMS ARE “MALEVOLENT” (DANGEROUS). THEY REQUIRE BLOOD AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS TO SURVIVE. YES THEY DO LIKE ICE CREAM (NO JOKE) BUT THEY CANNOT LIVE ON IT. THEY ABDUCT HUMANS AND ANIMALS TO PROCURE THESE FLUIDS. THE ALIEN LIFE FORMS ABDUCT HUMANS AND IMPLANT A VERY SMALL DEVICE/DEVICES IN OR NEAR THE HUMAN BRAIN WHICH GIVES THEM TOTAL CONTROL OVER THAT HUMAN. THE IMPLANTS ARE VERY DIFFICULT TO DETECT BUT CAN BE DETECTED. THE DOCUMENTS STATED THAT ALL ATTEMPTS TO REMOVE THE IMPLANTS HAVE RESULTED IN THE DEATH OF THE PATIENT (1972). THEY PERFORM SURGICAL OPERATIONS ON HUMANS. THEY COLLECT SPERM/OVA AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES FROM HUMANS. THE PURPOSE OF THIS HAS YET TO BE DETERMINED. THESE ABDUCTIONS ARE ONGOING. A LIST OF ABDUCTEES IS PROVIDED BY THE ALIENS TO MAJI ON A PERIODIC BASIS. THE ALIEN ALSO CLAIM TO HAVE PLAYED A VERY SIGNIFICANT PART IN THE WORLDS RELIGIOUS HISTORY AND HAVE PROVIDED MAJI WITH SUPPORTING EVIDENCE. (See description at the end of this document.)
UFO/IAC——–UFO IS UNIDENTIFIED FLYING OBJECT AND CAN BE ANYTHING UNIDENTIFIED BUT USUALLY REFERS TO SUSPECTED ALIEN CRAFT. IAC IS IDENTIFIED ALIEN CRAFT.
BLUE BOOK——THIS WAS AN AIR FORCE UFO/ALIEN INTELLIGENCE COLLECTION AND DISINFORMATION PROJECT. THIS PROJECT WAS TERMINATED AND ITS COLLECTED INFORMATION AND DUTIES WERE ABSORBED BY PROJECT AQUARIUS. CLASSIFIED REPORT NAMED “GRUDGE/BLUE BOOK REPORT NO. 13” IS THE ONLY SIGNIFICANT INFORMATION DERIVED FROM THE PROJECT AND IS UNAVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC. (FROM WHAT I READ FROM BILL ENGLISH IT SEEMS THAT HE REALLY SAW THIS REPORT AS HE DESCRIBES THE SAME INFORMATION THAT I SAW IN “GRUDGE/BLUE BOOK REPORT NO. 13.)
I have information now (its about time) that the existance of Project GABRIEL has been confirmed. The weapon was developed and assembled at Ling Tempco Vought in Anahiem California. It was described to me as being able to totally level ANY man made structure from a distance of 2 miles. It was tested at White Sands Proving grounds. It was developed between 1975 and 1978. It is a long horn shaped device connected to a computer and amplifiers.
I have also confirmed the existance of an alien craft at a hanger at Edwards AFB. The hanger is at North Base. It has been guarded by NON Edwards personnel (NRO – DELTA). The guards had a badge that was red with a black triangle on the face of the badge. No one was allowed near the hanger without the badge. These people are no longer guarding the hanger. The Edwards security force are instructed to check the hanger each hour and report status. The hanger is locked and no one is allowed inside. Edwards security personnel have been instructed never to enter the hanger even if it has been broken into.
I have also confirmed the existance of alien material at a hanger designated HANGER 1051 at Edwards AFB.
MALEVOLENT ALIEN LIFE FORM (ALF) DESCRIPTION
The typical MALEVOLENT (ALF) as represented thus far can be described as follows:
1. Between 3 to 5 ft. in hieght.
2. Erect standing biped. Long thin legs.
3. Small build (thin).
4. Head larger than normal (to human proportions).
5. Absence of auditory lobes (external earlobes).
6. Absence of body hair.
7. Large, tear shaped eyes, opacque black with veretical slit pupils (cats eye).
8. Eyes slanted approx 35 degrees.
9. Small straight mouth, thin lips.
10. Arms resemble praying mantis (normal attitude). Arms reach to knees (extended).
11. Long hands (small palm)
12. Claw like fingers, two short,two long. (webbed)
13. Tough, gray skin, reptile like in texture.
14. Small feet, 4 small claw like toes.
15. Some Organs are similar to humans but developed in a different evolutionary process.
16. The most significant finding is that they have a Nonfunctioning digestive system and two separate brains. Digestive system in those examined were atrophied. Conforms to absence of provisions in recovered craft. (Prelininary finding) 17. Movement is deliberate, slow, precise.
18. (Secondary finding after study) Alien subsistance requires that they must have human blood and other human biological substances to survive. In extreme circumstances they can subsist on other animal fluids. Food is converted to energy by chlorophyl through photosynthesis and waste products are excreted through skin. (Did they evolve from plant life? Not known at this time.) These creatures possess two separate brains separated by mid cranial lateral bone partition (anterior brain – posterior brain) with no apparent connection between the two.
GUEST———–ALIEN LIFE FORM HELD PRISONER IN AN AREA KNOWN AS THE ICE CAVE AT LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO. THERE WERE ORIGINALLY 16 CAPTIVE ALIENS HELD AT THIS LOCATION. 15 HAVE DIED. THE ALIEN “GUESTS” FURNISHED EXTENSIVE INFORMATION ON THE ALIENS AND THEIR HISTORY WHICH IS KNOWN AS THE “YELLOW BOOK”. THESE “GUESTS” WERE INDEED FED ICE CREAM AND LIKED STRAWBERRY ABOVE ALL OTHER FLAVORS. THESE ALIENS WERE HELD IN EXCHANGE FOR 16 HUMANS WHO BECAME “GUESTS” OF THE ALIENS NO INFORMATION REGARDING THE HUMAN “GUESTS” IS AVAILABLE FROM ANY SOURCE. THE “GUESTS” ENJOY MUSIC OF A FAR EASTERN NATURE AND ESPECIALLY ENJOY MUSIC WHICH ORIGINATES FROM TIBET. THEY POSSESS AN EXTREMELY HIGH IQ WHICH IS IN THE 200 RANGE. THEY HAVE A TENDENCY TO LIE.
RELIGION——–THE ALIENS CLAIM THAT MAN IS A HYBRID CREATED BY THEM. THEY CLAIM THAT ALL RELIGION WAS CREATED BY THEM TO HASTEN THE FORMATION OF A CIVILIZED CULTURE AND TO CONTROL THE HUMAN RACE. THEY CLAIM THAT JESUS WAS A PRODUCT OF THEIR EFFORTS. THE ALIENS HAVE FURNISHED PROOF OF THESE CLAIMS AND HAVE A DEVICE THAT ALLOWS THEM TO SHOW AUDIBLY AND VISUALLY ANY PART OF HISTORY THAT THEY OR WE WISH TO SEE. THEY CLAIM THAT O-BLOOD IS THE PROOF OF HYBRIDIZATION AND OUR OWN SCIENCE TENDS TO BEAR OUT THEIR CLAIM.
The confusion over the location of the alien base has prompted me to write this file.
My sources are terrified of revealing the location. I do not know why they are so afraid of revealing this information. I do not want anyone to go near the place because they may be subject to injury.
I know that the main base is in New Mexico. There are may be two small alien detachments. One at DREAMLAND and one at AREA 51. Both of these locations are used to test fly alien craft. The main location for test flights is at AREA 51. The aliens are helping us with the flights and with the craft technology and there is at least a small detachment at those locations.
Excalibur is being developed to penetrate ground such as that found in New Mexico. Paul Bennewicz swore that the base is in New Mexico. John Lear’s sources state that the base is in New Mexico. My sources originally told me that the base was in New Mexico. The information that I read with my own eyes stated that the base is in New Mexico. My sources panicked when I told them that I was posting the information on a public forum. Because I do not wish anyone to be injured while trying to “get a look” I will not reveal the exact location except that it is located in the state of New Mexico.
On this subject I believe that MAJIC2.TXT and MAJIC3.TXT are both correct and I add AREA 51
The information concerning The FAR SIDE OF THE MOON is bad in MAJIC2.TXT but is correct in MAJIC3.TXT. I hope that this file clears up the issue.